DRG Category: 190
Mean LOS: 5.8 days
Description MEDICAL: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease with Major CC
Emphysema is a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) characterized by abnormal, permanent enlargement of the air spaces beyond the terminal bronchioles, which results in the destruction of respiratory walls. The syndrome includes both chronic bronchitis and emphysema. COPD affects almost 15 million people and is the fourth leading cause of death overall in the United States. Approximately 5% to 6% of male adults and 1% to 3% of female adults have emphysema in the United States.
In emphysema, the affected terminal bronchioles contain mucous plugs that, when enlarged, eventually result in the loss of elasticity of the lung parenchyma, causing difficulty in the expiratory phase of respiration. The alveolar walls are destroyed by abnormal levels of enzymes (proteinases) that break down respiratory walls. Gas exchange is impaired by the reduced surface area that results from the destruction of alveolar walls.
Four types of emphysema have been identified: paraseptal emphysema, which affects the periphery of the lobule; panacinar or panlobular emphysema, which affects the lower anterior segments or the entire lungs; centriacinar or centrilobular emphysema, the most common form, which destroys respiratory bronchioles and is associated with chronic bronchitis and cigarette smoking; and bronchiectasis or chronic necrotizing infection that leads to abnormal and permanent bronchial dilation, which occurs rarely. Complications from emphysema include cor pulmonale, respiratory failure, pneumothorax, and recurrent respiratory tract infections. Emphysema is the most common cause of death from respiratory disease in the United States.
Emphysema has been found in Diseases and Disorders
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