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DRG Category: 644
Mean LOS: 5.3 days
Description MEDICAL: Endocrine Disorders with CC
Hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland produces a deficient amount of the thyroid hormones, resulting in a lowered basal metabolism. Many individuals with mild hypothyroidism are frequently undiagnosed, but the hormone disturbance may contribute to an acceleration of atherosclerosis or complications of medical treatment, such as intraoperative hypotension and cardiac complications after surgery. In severe hypothyroidism, a hydrophilic ("water-loving") mucopolysaccharide is deposited throughout the body, causing nonpitting edema (myxedema) and thickening of the facial features. The most severe level of the disease is myxedema coma, a life-threatening state characterized by cardiovascular collapse, severe electrolyte imbalances, respiratory depression, and cerebral hypoxia.
Hypothyroidism is generally classified as cretinism, juvenile hypothyroidism, and adult hypothyroidism. Cretinism is a state of severe hypothyroidism found in infants. When infants do not produce normal amounts of thyroid hormones, their skeletal maturation and central nervous system development are altered, resulting in retardation of physical growth or mental growth, or both. Juvenile hypothyroidism is most often caused by chronic autoimmune thyroiditis and affects the growth and sexual maturation of the child. Signs and symptoms are similar to adult hypothyroidism, and the treatment reverses most of the clinical manifestations of the disease.
Complications of the disease affect every organ system. Cardiovascular depression can lead to poor peripheral perfusion, congestive heart failure, and an enlarged heart. Intestinal obstruction, anemia, deafness, psychiatric problems, carpal tunnel syndrome, and impaired fertility are a few of the systemic complications.