Assess for change in severity of HIV symptoms and for symptoms of opportunistic infections during therapy.
Monitor weight periodically during therapy; may require dose modification.
Monitor bone mineral density in patients who have a history of pathologic bone fracture or are at risk for osteoporosis or bone loss. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation may be beneficial for all patients.
Lab Test Considerations:
Screen patients for HIV-1 infection immediately before starting therapy for HIV-1 PrEP and at least every 3 mo during therapy, and upon diagnosis of any sexually transmitted infections. If recent (<1 mo) exposures to HIV-1 are suspected (condomless sex or condom breaking during sex with a partner of unknown HIV-1 status, unknown viremic status, or a recent STI) or clinical symptoms consistent with acute HIV-1 infection occur, use a test approved by the FDA as an aid in the diagnosis of acute or primary HIV-1 infection. If HIV-1 test indicates possible HIV-1 infection, or symptoms consistent with acute HIV-1 infection develop following a potential exposure event, convert HIV-1 PrEP regimen to HIV treatment regimen until negative infection status is confirmed.
Monitor viral load and CD4 cell count regularly during therapy.
Assess for hepatitis B virus (HBV). Truvada is not approved for administration in patients with HIV and HBV. If therapy is discontinued, may cause severe exacerbation of hepatitis B. Monitor liver function in coinfected patients for several months after stopping therapy. May use anti-hepatitis therapy. Offer vaccination to patients uninfected with HIV.
Monitor liver function tests before and periodically during therapy, especially in patients with underlying liver disease or marked ↑ transaminase. May cause ↑ serum creatinine, AST, ALT, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides. May cause lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis. These events are more likely to occur if patients are female, obese, or receiving nucleoside analogue medications for extended periods of time. Monitor patient for signs (increased serum lactate levels, elevated liver enzymes, liver enlargement on palpation). Therapy should be suspended if clinical or laboratory signs occur.
Monitor creatinine clearance (CCr), serum creatinine, urine glucose, and urine protein prior to therapy. CCr should be >70 mL/min before starting therapy. Monitor CCr, urine glucose, and urine protein in all patients periodically during therapy and serum phosphorous in patients with chronic kidney disease. Assess patients with persistent or worsening bone pain, pain in extremities, fractures and/or muscular pain, or weakness for proximal renal tubulopathy; evaluate renal function promptly.
PO Administer once daily without regard to food.
Emphasize the importance of taking Truvada as directed. Do not take more than prescribed amount and do not stop taking without consulting health care professional. Uninfected individuals who miss doses are at greater risk of acquiring HIV-1. Advise patient to read Medication Guide prior to starting therapy and with each Rx refill in case of changes.
Advise patients taking Truvada for HIV-1 PrEP to only take Truvada if confirmed HIV-1 negative. Some HIV-1 tests can miss HIV-1 infection in patients recently infected. Notify health care professional if flu-like symptoms (tiredness, fever, joint or muscle aches, headache, sore throat, vomiting or diarrhea, rash, night sweats, enlarged lymph nodes in the neck or groin) occur. Advise patient to use condoms consistently and correctly to lower chances of sexual contact with any body fluids (semen, vaginal secretions, blood), the importance of knowing their HIV-1 status and the HIV-1 status of their partner(s), the need to get tested at least every 3 mo or more frequently for HIV-1 and other sexually transmitted infections (syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea), and to ask their partner to get tested. Advise patient if they become HIV-1 positive, more antiretroviral medication than Truvada is needed to treat HIV-1.
Advise patients taking Truvada to treat HIV-1 infection that Truvada alone is not a complete treatment for HIV-1; other antiretroviral medications are required.
Instruct patient that Truvada should not be shared with others.
Inform patient that Truvada does not cure AIDS or prevent other sexually transmitted infections, associated or opportunistic infections. Truvada may reduce the risk of transmission of HIV to others through sexual contact or blood contamination. Caution patient to use a condom and to avoid sharing needles or donating blood to prevent spreading the AIDS virus to others.
Advise patient to notify health care professional immediately if signs and symptoms of lactic acidosis (nausea, vomiting, unusual or unexpected stomach discomfort, and weakness), severe liver problems (yellow skin or white part of eyes, dark "tea-colored" urine, light-colored stools, loss of appetite, nausea, stomach-area pain), or DRESS occur.
Immune reconstitution syndrome may trigger opportunistic infections or autoimmune disorders (Graves' disease, polymyositis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, autoimmune hepatitis). Notify health care professional if symptoms (signs and symptoms of an infection or inflammation) occur.
Advise patient to notify health care professional of all Rx or OTC medications, vitamins, or herbal products being taken and to consult with health care professional before taking other medications.
Rep: Advise patient to notify health care professional if pregnancy is planned or suspected. Advise patient to avoid breast feeding during Truvada therapy. Encourage women who become pregnant during Truvada therapy to join the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to Truvada during pregnancy. Enroll patient by calling 1-800-258-4263.
Emphasize the importance of regular follow-up exams and blood counts to determine progress and monitor for side effects.
Delayed progression of AIDS and decreased opportunistic infections in patients with HIV.
Decrease in viral load and increase in CD4 cell counts.
Reduced risk of sexually acquired HIV-1 infection in at-risk individuals.
emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is a sample topic from the Davis's Drug Guide.
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