Management of HIV infection in combination with other antiretrovirals.
Inhibits the action of HIV protease and prevents the cleavage of viral polyproteins.
Increased CD4 cell counts and decreased viral load with subsequent slowed progression of HIV and its sequelae.
Absorption: Rapidly absorbed after oral administration.
Distribution: 90%; bound to plasma proteins.
Metabolism and Excretion: Mostly metabolized by the liver; <3% excreted unchanged by the kidneys.
Half-life: 7.1–10.6 hr.
TIME/ACTION PROFILE (blood levels)
Concurrent use of bepredil, dihydroergotamine, ergotamine, midazolam, and triazolam (may cause serious, potentially fatal toxicity)
Concurrent use of rifampin or supplemental vitamin E
If amprenavir is used concurrently with ritonavir, flecainide and propafenone are contraindicated
Lactation: Potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants (and potential HIV transmission) .
Use Cautiously in:
Hypersensitivity to sulfonamides
Hepatic impairment (dosage reduction required)
Hemophilia (may increase bleeding)
Diabetes mellitus (may worsen hyperglycemia)
OB: Safety not established.
Exercise Extreme Caution in:
Concurrent use of amiodarone, parenteral lidocaine, tricyclic antidepressants, or quinidine (may produce potentially life-threatening drug interactions).
Adverse Reactions/Side Effects
CNS: depression/mood disorder
GI: diarrhea, nausea, taste disorders, vomiting
Metabolic: hyperlipidemia, redistribution/accumulation of body fat
* CAPITALS indicate life-threatening. Underline indicate most frequent.
Increases blood levels and the risk of toxicity from midazolam, triazolam , ergot derivatives and pimozide; concurrent use is contraindicated; may also increase blood levels and effects of other benzodiazepines.
Increases blood levels and the risk of toxicity from amiodarone, lidocaine (parenteral), quinidine, tricyclic antidepressants, and warfarin ; careful monitoring is required.
If ritonavir is used concurrently, additional use of flecainide or propafenone is contraindicated (increased risk of arrhythmias).
Significantly increases blood levels of rifabutin ; decrease dose by 50% if used concurrently.
Administer antacids or didanosine at least 1 hr before or after amprenavir.
PO May be administered with or without food. Avoid high-fat meals, which may decrease absorption. Capsules may be stored at room temperature; do not refrigerate or freeze.
Emphasize the importance of taking amprenavir exactly as directed. It must always be used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs. Do not take more than prescribed amount and do not stop taking without consulting health care professional. If a dose is missed, take as soon as remembered within 4 hr, then return to regular schedule. If more than 4 hr from scheduled dose, omit dose and take next scheduled dose; do not double doses.
Instruct patient that amprenavir should not be shared with others.
Inform patient that amprenavir does not cure AIDS or prevent associated or opportunistic infections. Amprenavir does not reduce the risk of transmission of HIV to others through sexual contact or blood contamination. Caution patient to use a condom and to avoid sharing needles or donating blood to prevent spreading the AIDS virus to others. Advise patient that the long-term effects of amprenavir are unknown at this time.
Emphasize the importance of providing health care professional with accurate current drug history and notifying health care professional before taking any prescription or OTC medications because of potentially serious drug interactions. Vitamin E supplements should be avoided during amprenavir therapy.
Some hormonal contraceptives decrease amprenavir levels and effectiveness; advise patient to use a nonhormonal form of contraception during therapy.
Instruct patient to notify health care professional if nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or rash occurs.
Emphasize the importance of regular follow-up exams and blood counts to determine progress and monitor for side effects.
Delayed progression of AIDS and decreased opportunistic infections in patients with HIV.
Decrease in viral load and increase in CD4 cell counts.
amprenavir is a sample topic from the Davis's Drug Guide.
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