[L. solutio, loosening, solution]
1. A liquid containing a dissolved substance.
2. The process by which a solid is homogeneously mixed with a liquid, solid, or gas so that the dissolved substances cannot be distinguished from the resultant fluid.
3. A mixture formed by dissolution of substances.
The liquid in which the substances are dissolved is called the solvent and the substance dissolved, the solute.
A solution containing water as the solvent.
A crystalloid solution whose ionic and acid/base composition is similar to the composition of extracellular fluids.
SYN: SEE: balanced crystalloid
SEE: Benedict solution
A solution of a weak acid and its salt, e.g., carbonic acid, sodium bicarbonate, important in maintaining a constant pH, esp. of the blood.
SEE: Burow solution
A solution, usually combined with dextrose and other agents, to prevent blood clotting. It allows whole blood to be stored until it is needed for transfusion.
A sterile physiological salt solution containing minute quantities of cobra venom.
A solution in which the solute is suspended, not dissolved, such as gelatin or albumin.
The dislocation or displacement of two normally contiguous parts.
SEE: Dakin solution
SEE: Fehling solution
SEE: Hartmann solution
The technically accurate term for pasteurization, when a substance is heated to a specific temperature for a precise duration.
A solution of unfractionated heparins formerly used to keep intravenous infusion devices from clotting. Heparin flushes are now seldom used because they are more expensive than saline flushes and pose a risk of heparin-related thrombocytopenia, a potentially life-threatening allergy.
ABBR: HTK solution A preservative to protect a harvested organ before its transplantation into a donor. It is typically infused into the donor organ before the organ is removed from the body and then used to bathe the organ while it is kept in storage at 4° C (39.2° F) before implantation into the recipient.
A solution with a specific gravity and osmotic pressure greater than one or greater than the solution to which it is compared. It is important in injecting medicines or anesthetic agents into the spinal fluid in the spinal canal.
SEE: hyperbaric chamber
A solution having a greater osmotic pressure than that of cells or body fluids; a solution that draws water out of cells, thus inducing plasmolysis.
A solution having an osmotic pressure less than that of cells or body fluids; a solution that will cause water to enter cells, thus inducing swelling and possibly lysis.
A solution of iodine or potassium iodine used as a source of iodine.
Any fluid used to rinse an organ or body cavity.
A solution with a specific gravity equal to one or equal to the solution with which it is being compared.
SEE: hyperbaric solution
A solution having the same hydrogen ion concentration or pH as another.
A solution with the same osmotic pressure as the solution with which it is being compared.
A solution that has a concentration of electrolytes, nonelectrolytes, or both that will exert osmotic pressure equivalent to that of the solution with which it is being compared. Either 0.16 M sodium chloride solution (approx. 0.95% salt in water) or 0.3 M nonelectrolyte solution is approx. isotonic with human red blood cells.
SYN: SEE: balanced solution
SEE: Jessner solution
SEE: Ringer, Sydney
An aqueous solution of nonvolatile substances formerly used to prepare medicines.
SEE: Locke solution
SEE: Lugol solution
SYMB: 1 M A solution containing a gram molecular weight or mole of the reagent dissolved in 1 L of solution.
An obsolete term for a solution in which 1 L contains 1 g equivalent of the solute. This term is discouraged in the SI system.
A sterile preparation suitable for instillation in the eye.
ABBR: ORS A solution used to prevent or correct dehydration due to diarrheal illnesses. The World Health Organization recommends that the solution contain 3.5 g sodium chloride; 2.9 g potassium chloride; 2.9 g trisodium citrate; and 1.5 g glucose dissolved in each liter of drinking water.
A solution for cleansing the bowel before colonoscopy and barium enema examinations. It is an isosmotic solution for oral administration, containing 236 g of polyethylene glycol 3350; 23.74 g of sodium sulfate; 6.74 g of sodium bicarbonate; 5.86 g of sodium chloride; and 2.97 g of potassium chloride added to water to make up a 4-L solution. For adults 4 L of the solution are given at the rate of 8 oz (240 mL) every 10 min until exhausted. The bowel will be cleansed within 3 to 4 hr.
An arsenical solution containing 0.95 to 1.5 g of arsenic trioxide for each 100 ml of solution.
Any solution given intravenously to treat an electrolyte or metabolic disturbance.
A liquid given to a patient to increase concentrations of specific electrolytes or minerals. It is usually given intravenously, orally, enterally, or interosseously.
SEE: Ringer, Sydney
A solution of a salt, usually sodium chloride, and distilled water. A 0.9% solution of sodium chloride is considered isotonic to body fluids.
Salt solutions are used in health care for a wide variety of diseases and conditions: they rinse contact lenses, irrigate congested sinuses and wounds, and can be gargled to help sore throat symptoms. They can also be infused to maintain or restore hydration. Hypertonic saline solutions are occasionally used to treat hyponatremia. Hypotonic intravenous saline solutions add free water and may be used cautiously in some dehydrated patients, but these hypotonic solutions often lower patients' serum sodium levels, sometimes to dangerous levels.
A solution containing all the solute it can dissolve.
SEE: saturation point
A colloquial term for a skin cleanser for the removal of debris, dirt, microorganisms, oils, and scales from the skin of a patient before incision or instrumentation.
ABBR: 05N or N/2 A solution containing one-half of a gram equivalent weight of reagent in 1 L of solution.
A standardized solution of radioactive iodide, 125I.
In comparison or analysis, a solution containing a definite amount of a substance.
A solution containing approx. 28% ammonia in water.
A solution in which the saturation point is reached but when it is heated it is possible to dissolve more of the solute.
SEE: saturation point
A dissolved reagent used for a specific laboratory purpose.
A solution of sodium citrate, potassium citrate, and citric acid in a suitable aqueous medium. The sodium and potassium ion contents of the solution are approx. 1 mEq/ml.
SEE: Tyrode solution
SEE: Vleminckx solution
A standard solution containing a definite amount of a substance in 1 L of solution; used in volumetric analysis.
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