[globule + -in]
Any of the group of plasma proteins that controls colloidal osmotic pressure (oncotic pressure) within capillaries, participates in the immune response, and binds with substances to transport them in blood. Globulins make up approx. 38% of all plasma proteins. Alpha globulins transport bilirubin and steroids; beta globulins carry copper and iron. Gamma globulins, the most common, are immunoglobulins (antibodies).
SEE: antibody; SEE: immunoglobulin; SEE: oncotic pressure
Accelerator globulin; a globulin present in blood serum that speeds up the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in the presence of thromboplastin and calcium ions.
ABBR: AIG Pooled immunoglobulins from those who have been given anthrax vaccine, adsorbed. AIG is given intravenously as an antitoxin to those exposed to Bacillus anthracis. It is not FDA-approved.
ABBR: ALG A solution containing polyclonal antibodies, created by injecting animals with human lymphocytes. ALG is used as a nonspecific immunosuppressant to treat transplant rejection. Because it is polyclonal, ALG is active against many antigens; in contrast, monoclonal antibodies act against only one antigen.
SEE: polyclonal antibody
An agent used for immunosuppression in organ transplantation.
An immune globulin preparation containing cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific antibodies used to treat or prevent CMV infection after organ or tissue transplantation. Antiviral drugs like ganciclovir may be used for the same purpose.
The name commonly used for immune globulin, a solution containing antibodies (immunoglobulins) to specific organisms that are obtained from human blood plasma of donors; most of these antibodies are gamma class (IgG). Preparations of gamma globulins are used to provide immediate, short-term protection against specific infectious diseases, e.g., measles, diphtheria, hepatitis A and B, varicella, and respiratory syncytial virus if antibody-specific immune globulins are unavailable. They are also used to treat autoimmune illnesses, e.g., idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) is also called immunoglobulin.
SEE: antibody; SEE: globulin; SEE: immunoglobulin
ABBR: HBIG A sterilized solution of antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen obtained from plasma of human donors who have high titers of antibodies. It provides passive immunity against infection for those who have not been vaccinated and are exposed to HBV.
SEE: hepatitis B; SEE: hepatitis B virus vaccine
A product derived from pooled plasma with a high titer of a specific antibody, administered to create passive immunity to the antigen, e.g., a specific infectious agent.
SYN: SEE: hyperimmune plasma
A drug created from serum containing antibodies (immunoglobulins). It is used to supply necessary antibodies to patients with immunoglobulin deficiencies and to provide passive immunization against common viral infections, e.g., hepatitis A, and measles. It also has been used successfully to treat patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura because it seems to inhibit phagocytosis of platelets coated with autoantibodies, although the exact mechanism of its action is unknown.
SYN: SEE: immunoglobulin (2)
A preparation of immune globulin that is injected directly into a muscle. It can be used to provide passive immunity to a wide variety of infections, e.g., hepatitis A.
ABBR: IVIG, IGIV An immune globulin preparation used intravenously in patients with immunodeficiency syndromes and in immunosuppressed recipients of bone marrow transplants. Together with aspirin, it is the standard of care for children during the first 10 days of Kawasaki disease to prevent the development of coronary aneurysms.
IVIG is also used to treat idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and Guillain-Barré syndrome as well as to prevent bacterial infections in patients with hypogammaglobulinemia or recurrent infections associated with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
The administration of sucrose-containing IVIGs has been associated with acute renal failure, which in about 10% of patients has proved fatal. Patients should be hydrated before being treated with IVIG.
A solution of gamma globulin containing anti-Rh; it is given to Rh-negative women at 28 weeks' gestation to minimize the potential for sensitization secondary to transplacental bleeding. The injection is repeated within 72 hr after delivery of an Rh-positive newborn if the mother's indirect and the newborn's direct Coombs tests are negative. The globulin also should be given to Rh-negative women after spontaneous or induced abortion. Previously called Rho(D) immune globulin.
SEE: immune globulin
Any of the globulins present in blood plasma or serum. By electrophoresis, they can be separated into alpha, beta, and gamma globulins, which differ in their isoelectric points.
SEE: oncotic pressure
A plasma glycoprotein that binds androgens or estrogens, leaving small concentrations of free hormones to circulate in the blood.
A solution containing antibodies to Clostridium tetani. It is obtained from human blood and is used to provide passive immunity to prevent and treat tetanus infection. The average prophylactic dose for children and adults is 250 to 500 units injected intramuscularly.
An acidic plasma glycoprotein; the principal carrier of thyroxine from the thyroid gland to cell membrane receptors on target tissue cells. It bonds more weakly to triiodothyronine.
SEE: varicella-zoster immune globulin
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