[L. (variola) vaccina, cow(pox)]
1. An infectious liquid derived from cowpox lesions and used to prevent and attenuate smallpox in humans.
SEE: Jenner, Edward
2. Any suspension containing antigenic molecules derived from a microorganism, given to stimulate an immune response to an infectious disease. Vaccines may be made from weakened or killed microorganisms; inactivated toxins; toxoids derived from microorganisms; or immunologically active surface markers extracted or copied from microorganisms. They can be given intramuscularly, subcutaneously, intradermally, orally, or intranasally; as single agents; or in combinations.
The ideal vaccine should be effective, well tolerated, easy and inexpensive to manufacture, and easy to administer and store. In practice, side effects from vaccines (such as fevers, muscle aches, and pain at the injection site) are common but generally mild. Adverse reactions to vaccines that should be reported include anaphylaxis, shock, seizures, active infection, and death. SEE: immunization; SEE TABLE: Some Contraindications to Live Vaccines
Because vaccines may cause side effects, all those who receive them should carefully review federally mandated Vaccine Information Sheets before they are immunized.
Some Contraindications to Live Vaccines
|Immunocompromising diseases, e.g., HIV/AIDS|
|Immune-modulating drug treatment, e.g., treatment with immunologically active monoclonal antibodies|
|Active cancers actively treated with chemotherapy, other than skin cancer|
|Pregnancy (Women should wait to get pregnant at least 1 month after getting vaccination)|
anthrax vaccine, adsorbed A cell-free, aluminum-hydroxide-adsorbed vaccine, administered to raise protective antibodies against Bacillus anthracis. B. anthracis has been used in biological warfare.
Bacterial vaccine prepared from lesions of the individual to be inoculated.
SYN: SEE: homologous vaccine
A suspension of killed or attenuated bacteria; used for injection into the body to produce active immunity to the same organism.
A preparation of bacille Calmette-Guérin, a dried, living but attenuated culture of Mycobacterium bovis. In areas with a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB), it is used to provide passive immunity to infants against disseminated TB or TB meningitis, and it affords some protection against leprosy. It is not effective prevention against pulmonary infection with TB, nor can it be used in pregnant women or in the immunosuppressed. It also produces hypersensitivity to TB skin tests, making them unreliable for several years. The vaccine can be used in cancer chemotherapy, e.g., to treat multiple myeloma and cancer of the colon, or as a bladder wash in patients with carcinoma of the bladder.
BCG vaccine should not be given to people with chronic immune deficiencies.
SEE: bacille Calmette-Guérin
A vaccine prepared from killed or inactivated Vibrio cholerae.
A vaccine made from a bacterial or viral antigen that has been linked to another immunologically active molecule. The linkage improves the likelihood that the vaccine recipient will form antibodies against the primary target of the vaccine.
An anticancer vaccine made by extracting dendritic (antigen-presenting) cells from a patient with cancer, stimulating those cells to reproduce themselves, and then exposing them to antigens taken from the patient's cancer. The antigenically exposed dendritic cells are then injected back into the patient.
A vaccination against Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
SEE: DTaP vaccine
A vaccine made by genetic engineering in which the gene that codes for an antigen is inserted into a bacterial plasmid and then injected into the host. Once inside the host, it uses the nuclear machinery of the host cell to manufacture and express the antigen. Unlike other vaccines, DNA vaccines may have the potential to induce cellular as well as humoral immune responses.
A preparation of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis proteins. It is used to immunize children against all three infections or adults at high risk of complications of infection with pertussis.
An obsolete combination of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and killed pertussis bacilli. It is no longer given in pediatric immunizations because of the superiority of DTaP, a vaccine that contains only acellular pertussis.
A genetically manipulated food containing organisms or related antigens that may provide active immunity against infection. Edible vaccines against many microorganisms are being developed, with the goal of using them to vaccinate children in nonindustrialized countries where there are obstacles to the use of traditional injectable vaccines.
ABBR: HIB A vaccine created by combining purified polysaccharide antigen from the Haemophilus nfluenzae bacteria and a carrier protein. It reduces the risks of childhood epiglottitis, meningitis, and other diseases caused by H. influenzae.
A vaccine prepared from hepatitis B protein antigen produced by genetically engineered yeast. The vaccine prevents acute infection with hepatitis B, the chronic carrier state of hepatitis B infection. In developing nations where hepatitis B infection is endemic, it has been shown to decrease the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma resulting from hepatitis B infection. The World Health Organization recommends that the vaccine be given to all infants and adolescents, all health care workers, all patients receiving hemodialysis, all incarcerated prisoners, men who have sex with men, and those who inject drugs.
A recombinant vaccine used to vaccinate children and others at high risk for coming in contact with either hepatitis B carriers or blood or fluids from such people. It contains noninfectious hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), which stimulates the production of antibodies and provides active immunity. Included in the high-risk group are health care workers, hemodialysis patients, police officers and other public safety workers, people with other forms of chronic hepatitis, intravenous drug users, family members and sexual partners of those infected with hepatitis B virus, and people who travel extensively abroad.
SEE: hepatitis B immune globulin
A vaccine made from some source other than the patient's own tissues or cells; the opposite of autogenous vaccine.
A vaccine derived from an organism different from the organism against which the vaccine is used.
SEE: Autogenous vaccine.
A vaccine that protects against several types of human papillomavirus infection, specifically those associated with genital warts and cervical cancer.
ABBR: HDCV An inactivated virus vaccine prepared from fixed rabies virus grown in human diploid cell tissue culture.
poliovirus vaccine, inactivated An injectable vaccine made from three types of inactivated polioviruses. It was the first successful vaccine against poliomyelitis and is now the only polio vaccine administered in the U.S.
SYN: SEE: Salk vaccine
Infants should be given three doses, the first at 2 months of age, followed by two more doses at 8-week intervals. A fourth dose should be given at age 18 months unless poliomyelitis is endemic in the area, in which case the fourth dose is given 6 to 12 months after the third. Additional doses are recommended before beginning school and then every 5 years until age 18.
A polyvalent vaccine containing either inactivated or live attenuated antigenic variants of the influenza virus (types A and B either individually or combined) for annual usage. It prevents epidemic disease and the morbidity and mortality caused by influenza virus, esp. in the aged and the chronically ill. The vaccine is reformulated each year to match the strains of influenza present in the population.
A vaccine prepared from dead microorganisms. This type of vaccine is used to prevent disease caused by highly virulent microbes.
ABBR: LAIV A live virus vaccine made with influenza viruses adapted to replicate in the nose, sinuses, and pharynx but not in the lower respiratory tract. LAIV is typically administered by nasal inhalation rather than by intramuscular injection.
A vaccine prepared from live strains of the measles virus. It is the preferred form except in patients who have lymphoma; active tuberculosis; sensitivity to eggs; leukemia, or other generalized malignancy; or are undergoing radiation therapy; prolonged treatment with drugs that suppress the immune response, i.e., corticosteroids or antimetabolites; administration of gamma globulin, blood, or plasma. Those persons should be given immune globulin immediately following exposure.
A standardized vaccine containing attenuated measles and mumps viruses.
A standardized vaccine containing attenuated measles and rubella viruses.
ABBR: MMR vaccine A standardized vaccine containing attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella viruses. Two doses of the vaccine are recommended: at age 12 to 15 months and again at 4 to 6 years of age.
A standardized attenuated virus vaccine for use in immunizing against measles.
poliovirus vaccine, live oral A vaccine prepared from three types of live attenuated polioviruses. In 1999, an advisory panel to the CDC recommended that its routine use be discontinued. Because it contains a live, although weakened virus, it had been causing 8 to 10 cases of polio each year in the U.S. This risk was deemed no longer acceptable since by that date polio epidemics had been eliminated in the U.S. Therefore, since 1999 the live oral poliovirus vaccine has not been recommended or routinely given in the U.S. Instead only the inactivated poliovirus vaccine is approved and given in the U.S. Recommendations outside the U.S, where polio outbreaks still occur, include the use of live oral polio vaccines.
SYN: SEE: Sabin vaccine
An attenuated virus vaccine used to prevent rubella (German measles). All nonpregnant susceptible women of childbearing age should be provided with this vaccine to prevent fetal infection and the congenital rubella syndrome, i.e., possible fetal death, prematurity, impaired hearing, cataract, mental retardation, and other serious conditions.
Women of child-bearing age who receive vaccinations are advised to use effective birth control measures for at least 1 month after immunization. Before administering the RA27/3 rubella vaccine, a history of allergies, esp. to neomycin, and of reactions to previous vaccinations should be obtained, and the primary care provider made aware of any problems. Those who are immunocompromised for any reason should not receive this vaccine, which is more immunogenic than previous preparations.
A vaccine that uses as an antigen either the outer surface protein (OspA) of Borrelia burgdorferi or the decorin protein of the same microbe. Lyme vaccine is available in the U.S. for veterinary use only.
A vaccine that induces an immune response that is easily distinguished from the antibody response caused by the infection that the vaccine prevents.
Any of the vaccines prepared from bacterial polysaccharides from certain types of meningococci. Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccines A, C, Y, and W135 are available for preventing diseases caused by those serogroups. A vaccine for meningococcal serogroup B is not available.
All adolescents should initially receive meningococcal vaccine at age 11 or 12 and a booster at age 16. Patients with complement deficiencies, HIV, or asplenia should receive two doses two months apart, beginning as early as age 2.
SEE: acute meningococcal meningitis
mumps virus vaccine live A live attenuated vaccine used to prevent mumps. Its use should be governed by the same restrictions listed for live attenuated measles virus vaccine.
A vaccine that stimulates antibody production against specific amino acid sequences, e.g., those expressed on the surface of pathogens or cancer cells.
A vaccine against Bordetella pertussis.
SEE: DTaP vaccine
A vaccine made either from a crude fraction of killed plague bacilli, Yersinia pestis, or synthetically from recombinant proteins. It is rarely used, except in a laboratory or for field workers in areas where plague is endemic.
A 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine used for active immunization of infants, toddlers and people over 65.
In seniors, PCV13 should be followed by an injection of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine between 6 and 12 months.
SEE: PCV7, SEE: PCV13
ABBR: PPSV, PPSV23 A 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine to prevent invasive pneumococcal disease. It should be administered to people over the age of 65 12 months after vaccination with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.
ABBR: PCV7 A pneumococcal vaccine used for active immunization of infants and toddlers. The vaccine contains antigens from seven capsular serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae and is used to immunize children against pneumococcal diseases, such as otitis media, pneumonia, and meningitis.
A vaccine produced from cultures of a number of strains of the same species.
A vaccine that contains 23 of the known 83 pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides, and induces immunity against Streptococcus pneumoniae, which causes ear, sinus, lung, blood, and meningeal infections. This vaccine is used to prevent pneumococcal disease in alcoholics; and in those who have sickle cell diseases; asplenia; chronic heart, lung, liver, or kidney disease; diabetes mellitus; immunological illnesses; and in those over 65.
The value of vaccination is continually rising, as S. pneumoniae becomes more and more resistant to antibiotics. The vaccine should not be coadministered in the same syringe as other vaccines. Common adverse reactions include pain at the site of injection and sometimes a low-grade fever.
A vaccine prepared from killed rabies virus used for preexposure immunization for persons at high occupational risk. Following a bite by a rabid animal, both the vaccine and rabies immune globulin, containing preformed antibodies, are given.
SEE: human diploid cell rabies vaccine; SEE: rabies
A vaccine made by combining antigens from several viruses or from several strains of the same virus.
ABBR: RTV A vaccine to prevent wild animals from contracting illnesses that they might eventually transmit to human beings. Oral RTVs can be left in the wild in bait.
A vaccine prepared from bacteria treated with their specific immune serum.
A vaccine used to provide immunity against smallpox. The vaccine is made from live vaccinia virus (not from the smallpox virus). Similarities between the two viruses make the vaccine about 95% effective in preventing smallpox in those exposed to the virus. Smallpox vaccine was not used for many years because smallpox had been eradicated worldwide. However, concerns over the use of smallpox as a biological weapon have resulted in vaccination of persons at high risk, e.g., public health workers, health care response teams, members of the armed services. The general public is not being vaccinated. The CDC recommends that those people who could be exposed to the monkeypox virus should also be vaccinated against smallpox.
A vaccine that is made from a portion of a microorganism (usually one of the organism's protein antigens) rather than from the whole organism.
A vaccine against Clostridium tetani.
SEE: DTaP vaccine
One of two forms of vaccine against typhoid fever. Attenuated live virus is used for an oral vaccine taken in four doses by adults and children over age 6; it provides protection for 5 years. This vaccine should not be given to people taking antimicrobial drugs or to those with AIDS. A parenteral type of the vaccine, made from the capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi, given to children at least 6 months old, requires two doses 4 weeks apart, is effective 55% to 75% of the time, and lasts 3 years.
A sterile suspension of the killed rickettsial organism of a strain or strains of epidemic typhus rickettsiae.
A vaccine made from a live attenuated strain of yellow fever that protects against this tropical, mosquito-borne, viral hemorrhagic fever.
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