[L. respiratio, breathing]
1. The interchange of gases between an organism and the medium in which it lives. In humans this involves breathing (inhaling and exhaling) primarily to take in oxygen and deliver it through pulmonary capillaries to the blood, and excreting carbon dioxide.
2. The act of breathing (inhaling and exhaling) during which the lungs are provided with air through inhaling and the carbon dioxide is removed through exhaling. Normal respiratory exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs is impossible unless the pulmonary tissue is adequately perfused with blood.SEE: lung; SEE: ventilation;
MUSCLES OF RESPIRATION
Respiration in which chiefly the diaphragm exerts itself while the chest wall muscles are nearly at rest; used in normal, quiet breathing, and in pathological conditions such as pleurisy, pericarditis, and rib fracture.
SYN: SEE: belly breathing; SEE: diaphragmatic respiration
Respiration in which respiratory sounds are suppressed or absent.
Cellular respiration in which oxygen is used in the production of energy.
Respiration having amphoric resonance.
SEE: amphoric resonance
The release of energy from the reduction of metals (such as iron, manganese, or sulfur) by cells or organisms that do not use oxygen as their primary energy source.
Breathing marked by prolonged inspiration unrelieved by attempts to exhale. It is seen in patients who have had the upper part of the pons of the brain removed or damaged.
Maintenance of respiratory movement by artificial means, such as rescue breathing, bag mask, pocket mask, automatic transport ventilator, manual transport ventilator, or a flow-restricted oxygen-powered ventilation device.
SEE: cardiopulmonary resuscitation
SEE: Biot breathing.
SEE: Bouchut respiration
The gradual breakdown of food molecules in the presence of oxygen within cells, resulting in the formation of carbon dioxide and water and the release of energy in the forms of adenosine triphosphate and heat. In many intermediary reactions, substances other than oxygen act as oxidizing agents (hydrogen or electron acceptors). Reactions are catalyzed by respiratory enzymes, which include the flavoproteins, cytochromes, and other enzymes. Certain vitamins (nicotinamide, riboflavin, thiamine, pyridoxine, and pantothenic acid) are essential in the formation of components of various intracellular enzyme systems.
Respiration in which the chest cavity expands by raising the ribs.
The transpiration of gases through the skin.
Respiration at less than a normal rate for the individual's age. In adults, it is a respiratory rate of less than 12 breaths per minute. Slower than normal respiratory rates occur after opiate or sedative use, during sleep, in coma, and other conditions and may result in respiratory failure or carbon dioxide retention.
SYN: SEE: slow respiration
Respiration in which an organism, such as a one-celled ameba, secures its oxygen and gives up carbon dioxide directly to the surrounding medium.
The exchange of gases in the lungs. Oxygen diffuses from the air to the blood, and carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood to the air.
Video for gas exchange
Gas exchange in the placenta between the fetal and maternal blood.
SYN: SEE: placental respiration
The exchange of gases in body tissues. Oxygen diffuses from the blood to the cells, and carbon dioxide diffuses from the cells to the blood. Oxygen is carried in combination with hemoglobin. Oxyhemoglobin gives arterial blood its red color; reduced hemoglobin gives venous blood its dark red color. Most carbon dioxide is carried in the blood as bicarbonate ions; a small amount is bonded to hemoglobin. Normally the partial pressure of oxygen in the blood is 75 to 100 mm Hg, depending on age; for carbon dioxide it is 35 to 45 mm Hg.
SYN: SEE: tissue respiration
Video for gas exchange
Respiration in which inspiratory or expiratory sounds are not continuous.
SYN: SEE: cogwheel respiration
Respiration by the fetus before birth.
SEE: fetal respiration
SEE: Kussmaul, Adolph
Respiration that involves active participation of accessory inspiratory and expiratory muscles; dyspnea.
The stages of cell respiration (citric acid cycle and cytochrome transport system) that take place in the mitochondria. Water is formed from oxygen and hydrogen ions, and energy is released.
SEE: cell respiration
1. Respiration occurring in patients with chest trauma and multiple rib fractures in which a portion of the chest wall sinks inward with each spontaneous inspiratory effort.
2. A condition seen in paralysis of the diaphragm in which the diaphragm ascends during inspiration.
SEE: Periodic breathing.
SEE: Fetal respiration.
A method of stimulating respiration in cases of respiratory paralysis from spinal cord injury at the cervical level. Intermittent electrical stimuli to the phrenic nerves are supplied by a radiofrequency transmitter implanted subcutaneously. The diaphragmatic muscles contract in response to these stimuli.
Respiration marked by high-pitched crowing or barking sound heard on inspiration, caused by an obstruction near the glottis or in the respiratory passageway.
Respiration performed entirely by expansion of the chest when the abdomen does not move. It is seen when the peritoneum or diaphragm is inflamed, when the abdominal cavity is restricted by tight bandages or clothes, or during abdominal surgery.
Video for Thoracic Spine and Rib Cage Breathing
Increased respiration in one lung when respiration in the other is lessened or abolished.
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