Vanillylmandelic Acid, Urine
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To assist in the diagnosis and follow up treatment of pheochromocytoma, neuroblastoma, and ganglioblastoma. This test can also be useful in evaluation and follow-up of hypertension.
There are no fluid restrictions unless by medical direction. Instruct the patient to abstain from smoking tobacco for 24 hr before testing. Usually, a 24-hr urine collection is ordered. As appropriate, provide the required urine collection container and specimen collection instructions. Inform the patient of the following dietary, medication, and activity restrictions in preparation for the test (protocols may vary among facilities):
- The patient should not consume foods high in amines (bananas, avocados, beer, aged cheese, chocolate, cocoa, coffee, fava beans, grains, tea, vanilla, walnuts, and red wine) for 48 hr before testing.
- The patient should not consume foods or fluids high in caffeine (coffee, tea, cocoa, and chocolate) for 48 hr before testing.
- The patient should not consume any foods or fluids containing vanilla or licorice.
- The patient should avoid self-prescribed medications (especially aspirin) and prescribed medications (especially pyridoxine, levodopa, amoxicillin, carbidopa, reserpine, and disulfiram) for 2 wk before testing and as directed.
- The patient should avoid excessive exercise and stress during the 24-hr collection of urine.
Method: High-pressure liquid chromatography.
|Age||Conventional Units||SI Units (Conventional Units × 5.05)|
|3–6 yr||Less than 2.6 mg/24 hr||Less than 13 micromol/24 hr|
|7–10 yr||Less than 3.2 mg/24 hr||Less than 16 micromol/24 hr|
|11–16 yr||Less than 5.2 mg/24 hr||Less than 26 micromol/24 hr|
|17–83 yr||Less than 6.5 mg/24 hr||Less than 33 micromol/24 hr|
Critical Findings and Potential Interventions