Anoscopy (anal canal), proctoscopy (anus and rectum), flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy, flexible proctosigmoidoscopy, sigmoidoscopy (sigmoid colon).

To visualize and assess the anus, rectum, and sigmoid colon to assist in diagnosing disorders such as cancer, inflammation, prolapse, and evaluate the effectiveness of medical and surgical therapeutic interventions.

Patient Preparation
There are no activity restrictions unless by medical direction. Instruct the patient to eat a low-residue diet for 3 days prior to the procedure. Only clear liquids should be consumed the evening before, and food and fluids should be restricted for 8 hr prior to the procedure. Protocols may vary among facilities. Note intake of oral iron preparations within 1 wk before the procedure because these cause black, sticky feces that are difficult to remove with bowel preparation.

Regarding the patient’s risk for bleeding, the patient should be instructed to avoid taking natural products and medications with known anticoagulant, antiplatelet, or thrombolytic properties or to reduce dosage, as ordered, prior to the procedure. Number of days to withhold medication is dependent on the type of anticoagulant. Note the last time and dose of medication taken.Normal Findings

  • Normal mucosa of the anal canal, rectum, and sigmoid colon.

Critical Findings and Potential Interventions

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