Venography, Lower Extremity Studies


Lower limb venography, phlebography, venogram.

To visualize and assess the venous vasculature in the lower extremities related to diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and congenital anomalies.

Patient Preparation
There are no activity restrictions unless by medical direction. Instruct the patient to fast and restrict fluids for 8 hr, or as ordered, prior to the procedure. Fasting may be ordered as a precaution against aspiration related to possible nausea and vomiting. The American Society of Anesthesiologists has fasting guidelines for risk levels according to patient status. More information can be located at

Note: Protocols regarding the use of iodinated contrast medium in patients with impaired kidney function and who are receiving metformin or drugs containing metformin for type 2 diabetes may vary by facility; the drug may be discontinued on the day of the test and continue to be withheld for 48 hr after the test. Kidney function should be assessed per facility protocol before use of metformin is resumed (e.g., Cr, eGFR, hydration or clinical assessment).

Regarding the patient’s risk for bleeding, the patient should be instructed to avoid taking natural products and medications with known anticoagulant, antiplatelet, or thrombolytic properties or to reduce dosage, as ordered, prior to the procedure. Number of days to withhold medication is dependent on the type of anticoagulant. Note the last time and dose of medication taken. Protocols may vary among facilities.Normal Findings
No obstruction to flow and no filling defects after injection of radiopaque contrast medium; steady opacification of superficial and deep vasculature with no filling defects.

Critical Findings and Potential Interventions

  • DVT
  • Pulmonary embolism (PE)

Timely notification to the requesting health-care provider (HCP) of any critical findings and related symptoms is a role expectation of the professional nurse. A listing of these findings varies among facilities.

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