Protein, Urine, Total and Fractions

Protein, Urine, Total and Fractions is a topic covered in the Davis's Lab & Diagnostic Tests.

To view the entire topic, please or purchase a subscription.

Nursing Central is the award-winning, complete mobile solution for nurses and students. Look up information on diseases, tests, and procedures; then consult the database with 5,000+ drugs or refer to 65,000+ dictionary terms. Explore these free sample topics:

Nursing Central

-- The first section of this topic is shown below --


To assess for the presence of protein in the urine toward diagnosing disorders affecting the kidneys and urinary tract, such as cancer, infection, and pre-eclampsia.

Patient Preparation
There are no food, fluid, activity, or medication restrictions unless by medical direction. Usually, a 24-hr time frame for urine collection is ordered. As appropriate, provide the required urine collection container and specimen collection instructions.

Normal Findings
Method: Spectrophotometry for total protein, electrophoresis for protein fractions.

Normal 24-Hour Urine Volume
The ranges are very general averages and were not calculated on the basis of normal average body weights. Literature shows that the expected urinary output can be estimated by formula where the expected output is as follows:
  • Infants: 1–2 mL/kg/hr
  • Children and adolescents: 0.5–1 mL/kg/hr
  • Adults: 1 mL/kg/hr
Newborns15–60 mL
 3–10 days100–300 mL
 11–59 days250–450 mL
 2–12 mo400–500 mL
Children and adolescents
 13 mo–4 yr500–700 mL
 5–7 yr650–1,000 mL
 8–14 yr800–1,400 mL
Adults and older adults800–2,500 mL (average 1,200 mL)
Normally, more urine is produced during the day than at night. With advancing age, the reverse will often occur. The total expected outcome for adults appears to remain the same regardless of age.
Conventional UnitsSI Units (Conventional Units × 0.001)
Total protein30–150 mg/24 hr0.03–0.15 g/24 hr
Second and third trimesters of pregnancy45–185 mg/24 hr0.045–0.185 g/24 hr
The 24-hr urine volume is recorded and provided with the results of the protein measurement. Electrophoresis for fractionation is qualitative: No monoclonal gammopathy detected. (Urine protein electrophoresis should be ordered along with serum protein electrophoresis.)

Critical Findings and Potential Interventions

-- To view the remaining sections of this topic, please or purchase a subscription --