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Ultrasound Studies, Various Sites (Abdomen, Bladder, Breast, Pelvis, Prostate, Scrotum, Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands)

Ultrasound Studies, Various Sites (Abdomen, Bladder, Breast, Pelvis, Prostate, Scrotum, Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands) is a topic covered in the Davis's Lab & Diagnostic Tests.

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Synonym/Acronym:
Sonography, ultrasound.

Rationale
To visualize and assess solid organs of the abdominal area (including the aorta, bile ducts, bladder, gallbladder, kidneys, liver, pancreas, spleen, and other large abdominal blood vessels), breast, pelvis, prostate, scrotum, thyroid and parathyroid glands. Ultrasound (US) can be used to provide guidance in the performance of biopsies and assist in diagnosing disorders such as aneurysm, cancer, infections, fluid collections, masses, and obstructions. US can also be used to evaluate therapeutic interventions such as organ transplants.

Patient Preparation
There are no food, fluid, activity, or medication restrictions unless by medical direction for US bladder, breast, kidneys, pelvis, prostate, scrotal, thyroid and parathyroid glands. Note any recent procedures that can interfere with abdominal US test results (e.g., surgery, biopsy, barium studies, colonoscopy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography). Ensure that interfering studies were performed at least 24 hr before this test or can be rescheduled after this procedure.

  • US Abdomen, Liver and Biliary System, Pancreas, Spleen: Instruct the patient to fast and restrict fluids for 8 hr prior to the procedure; instruct the caregiver of a pediatric patient to have the patient fast and restrict fluids for 8 hr prior to the procedure or as ordered. Patients may be asked to eat a low- or fat-free diet the night before the procedure. Food restrictions help ensure reduction of bowel gas, which can interfere with the transmission of US waves. Protocols may vary among facilities.
  • US Bladder: If required, instruct the patient receiving transabdominal US bladder/pelvis to drink three to four glasses of fluid 90 min before the procedure, and not to void, because the procedure requires a full bladder.
  • US Breast: Instruct the patient not to apply lotions, deodorant, bath powder, or other substances to the chest and breast area before the examination.
  • US Prostate: Inform the patient that a small-volume enema will be administered prior to the procedure to help remove gas or feces that could interfere with the rectal probe; after the enema, a sterile latex- or sheath-covered probe will be inserted into the rectum.

Normal Findings

  • Normal anatomic structures, size, position, and shape; includes associated structures and blood flow/rate.
  • No evidence of congenital anomalies, cysts, nodules, or tumors.
  • Normal subcutaneous, mammary, and retromammary layers of tissue in both breasts; no evidence of pathological lesions (cyst or tumor) in either breast.
  • Absence of renal calculi, cysts, hydronephrosis, obstruction, or tumor.
  • Normal patency of the cystic and common bile ducts.
  • Uniform echo patterns throughout the thyroid and parathyroid glands.

Critical Findings and Potential Interventions

  • Abscess
  • Adnexal torsion
  • Aortic aneurysm measuring 5 cm or more in diameter
  • Appendicitis
  • Infection
  • Testicular torsion
  • Tumor with significant mass effect

Timely notification to the requesting health-care provider (HCP) of any critical findings and related symptoms is a role expectation of the professional nurse. A listing of these findings varies among facilities.

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Citation

Bladh, Mickey Lynn., and Anne M. Van Leeuwen. "Ultrasound Studies, Various Sites (Abdomen, Bladder, Breast, Pelvis, Prostate, Scrotum, Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands)." Davis's Lab & Diagnostic Tests, 7th ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2017. Nursing Central, nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Davis-Lab-and-Diagnostic-Tests/425459/all/Ultrasound_Studies__Various_Sites__Abdomen__Bladder__Breast__Pelvis__Prostate__Scrotum__Thyroid_and_Parathyroid_Glands_.
Bladh ML, Van Leeuwen AM. Ultrasound Studies, Various Sites (Abdomen, Bladder, Breast, Pelvis, Prostate, Scrotum, Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands). Davis's Lab & Diagnostic Tests. 7th ed. F.A. Davis Company; 2017. https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Davis-Lab-and-Diagnostic-Tests/425459/all/Ultrasound_Studies__Various_Sites__Abdomen__Bladder__Breast__Pelvis__Prostate__Scrotum__Thyroid_and_Parathyroid_Glands_. Accessed June 20, 2019.
Bladh, M. L., & Van Leeuwen, A. M. (2017). Ultrasound Studies, Various Sites (Abdomen, Bladder, Breast, Pelvis, Prostate, Scrotum, Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands). In Davis's Lab & Diagnostic Tests. Available from https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Davis-Lab-and-Diagnostic-Tests/425459/all/Ultrasound_Studies__Various_Sites__Abdomen__Bladder__Breast__Pelvis__Prostate__Scrotum__Thyroid_and_Parathyroid_Glands_
Bladh ML, Van Leeuwen AM. Ultrasound Studies, Various Sites (Abdomen, Bladder, Breast, Pelvis, Prostate, Scrotum, Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands) [Internet]. In: Davis's Lab & Diagnostic Tests. F.A. Davis Company; 2017. [cited 2019 June 20]. Available from: https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Davis-Lab-and-Diagnostic-Tests/425459/all/Ultrasound_Studies__Various_Sites__Abdomen__Bladder__Breast__Pelvis__Prostate__Scrotum__Thyroid_and_Parathyroid_Glands_.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Ultrasound Studies, Various Sites (Abdomen, Bladder, Breast, Pelvis, Prostate, Scrotum, Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands) ID - 425459 A1 - Bladh,Mickey Lynn, AU - Van Leeuwen,Anne M, BT - Davis's Laboratory & Diagnostic Tests UR - https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Davis-Lab-and-Diagnostic-Tests/425459/all/Ultrasound_Studies__Various_Sites__Abdomen__Bladder__Breast__Pelvis__Prostate__Scrotum__Thyroid_and_Parathyroid_Glands_ PB - F.A. Davis Company ET - 7 DB - Nursing Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -