Cancer Markers

Cancer Markers is a topic covered in the Davis's Lab & Diagnostic Tests.

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Synonym/Acronym:

Cancer markers, Cancer antigens, Tumor markers, alpha1-Fetoprotein, anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase gene (ALK), BCR-ABL, BRAC-1, BRAC-2, BRAF, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3), cancer antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), cancer antigen 27.29 (CA 27.29), epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR), HCG, HE4, HER-2–Neu, KRAS, methylated Septin 9 DNA.

Rationale

To identify the presence of various cancers, such as breast and ovarian, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of cancer treatment.

Patient Preparation

There are no food, fluid, activity, or medication restrictions unless by medical direction.

Normal Findings

Method: Electrochemiluminescent immunoassay.

Alpha1-Fetoprotein Males and Females (Conventional Units)SI Units (Conventional Units × 1)
Less than 2 wk5000–100,000 ng/mL5000–100,000 mcg/L
15 day—1 moLess than 60,000 ng/mLLess than 60,000 mcg/L
2 moLess than 1000 ng/mLLess than 1000 mcg/L
3 moLess than 300 ng/mLLess than 300 mcg/L
4 moLess than 200 ng/mLLess than 200 mcg/L
5—11 moLess than 100 ng/mLLess than 100 mcg/L
1 yr and olderLess than 10 ng/mLLess than 10 mcg/L
Values may be higher for premature newborns. Values decrease rapidly after the neonatal period and normalize after the first year of life.
CEAConventional UnitsSI Units (Conventional Units × 1)
Smoking Status
  SmokerLess than 5 ng/mLLess than 5 mcg/L
  NonsmokerLess than 3 ng/mLLess than 3 mcg/L
Note: Peritoneal fluid may be evaluated for CEA levels in addition to cytologic studies for evidence of malignancy. Normal fluid CEA levels generally parallel serum or plasma values.
Other MarkersConventional UnitsSI Units (Conventional Units × 1)
ALK gene mutationPositive (greater than 50% gene rearrangement identified)
BCR—ABL mutationPresent
BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 mutationPresent
BRAF mutationPresent
CA 125Less than 35 units/mLLess than 35 kilo units/L
CA 15-3Less than 30 units/mLLess than 30 kilo units/L
CA 19-9Less than 37 units/mLLess than 37 kilo units/L
CA 27.29Less than 40 units/mLLess than 40 kilo units/L
EGFR mutationPresent
HCGLess than 3 milli-international units/mL in males or less than 5 milli-international units/mL in nonpregnant femalesLess than 3 international units/L in males or less than 5 international units/L in nonpregnant females
HE4Less than 140 pmol/L
HER-2–NEUBlood sample 0–15 ng/mL or Tissue sample Negative
KRAS mutationNo mutation detected
Septin 9 DNA methylationPresent

Critical Findings and Potential Interventions

N/A

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Synonym/Acronym:

Cancer markers, Cancer antigens, Tumor markers, alpha1-Fetoprotein, anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase gene (ALK), BCR-ABL, BRAC-1, BRAC-2, BRAF, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3), cancer antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), cancer antigen 27.29 (CA 27.29), epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR), HCG, HE4, HER-2–Neu, KRAS, methylated Septin 9 DNA.

Rationale

To identify the presence of various cancers, such as breast and ovarian, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of cancer treatment.

Patient Preparation

There are no food, fluid, activity, or medication restrictions unless by medical direction.

Normal Findings

Method: Electrochemiluminescent immunoassay.

Alpha1-Fetoprotein Males and Females (Conventional Units)SI Units (Conventional Units × 1)
Less than 2 wk5000–100,000 ng/mL5000–100,000 mcg/L
15 day—1 moLess than 60,000 ng/mLLess than 60,000 mcg/L
2 moLess than 1000 ng/mLLess than 1000 mcg/L
3 moLess than 300 ng/mLLess than 300 mcg/L
4 moLess than 200 ng/mLLess than 200 mcg/L
5—11 moLess than 100 ng/mLLess than 100 mcg/L
1 yr and olderLess than 10 ng/mLLess than 10 mcg/L
Values may be higher for premature newborns. Values decrease rapidly after the neonatal period and normalize after the first year of life.
CEAConventional UnitsSI Units (Conventional Units × 1)
Smoking Status
  SmokerLess than 5 ng/mLLess than 5 mcg/L
  NonsmokerLess than 3 ng/mLLess than 3 mcg/L
Note: Peritoneal fluid may be evaluated for CEA levels in addition to cytologic studies for evidence of malignancy. Normal fluid CEA levels generally parallel serum or plasma values.
Other MarkersConventional UnitsSI Units (Conventional Units × 1)
ALK gene mutationPositive (greater than 50% gene rearrangement identified)
BCR—ABL mutationPresent
BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 mutationPresent
BRAF mutationPresent
CA 125Less than 35 units/mLLess than 35 kilo units/L
CA 15-3Less than 30 units/mLLess than 30 kilo units/L
CA 19-9Less than 37 units/mLLess than 37 kilo units/L
CA 27.29Less than 40 units/mLLess than 40 kilo units/L
EGFR mutationPresent
HCGLess than 3 milli-international units/mL in males or less than 5 milli-international units/mL in nonpregnant femalesLess than 3 international units/L in males or less than 5 international units/L in nonpregnant females
HE4Less than 140 pmol/L
HER-2–NEUBlood sample 0–15 ng/mL or Tissue sample Negative
KRAS mutationNo mutation detected
Septin 9 DNA methylationPresent

Critical Findings and Potential Interventions

N/A

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