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Alpha1-Antitrypsin and Alpha1-Antitrypsin Phenotyping

Alpha1-Antitrypsin and Alpha1-Antitrypsin Phenotyping is a topic covered in the Davis's Lab & Diagnostic Tests.

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Synonym/Acronym:
α1-antitrypsin: A1AT, α1-AT, AAT; α1-antitrypsin phenotyping: A1AT phenotype, α1-AT phenotype, AAT phenotype, Pi phenotype.

Rationale
To assist in the identification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and liver disease associated with α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT) deficiency.

Patient Preparation
There are no food, fluid, or activity restrictions unless by medical direction. Oral contraceptives should be withheld 24 hr before the specimen is collected, although this restriction should first be confirmed with the health-care provider (HCP) ordering the test.

Normal Findings
Method: Rate nephelometry for α1-AT, isoelectric focusing/high-resolution electrophoresis for α1-AT phenotyping.

α1-Antitrypsin

AgeConventional UnitsSI Units (Conventional Units × 0.01)
Newborn124–348 mg/dL1.24–3.48 g/L
Child110–279 mg/dL1.1–2.79 g/L
Adult126–226 mg/dL1.26–2.26 g/L

α1-Antitrypsin Phenotyping

There are three major protease inhibitor phenotypes:

  • MM—Normal
  • SS—Intermediate; heterozygous
  • ZZ—Markedly abnormal; homozygous

The total level of measurable α1-AT varies with genotype. The effects of α1-AT deficiency depend on the patient's personal habits but are most severe in patients who smoke tobacco.

Critical Findings and Potential Interventions
N/A

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Citation

Bladh, Mickey Lynn., and Anne M. Van Leeuwen. "Alpha1-Antitrypsin and Alpha1-Antitrypsin Phenotyping." Davis's Lab & Diagnostic Tests, 7th ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2017. Nursing Central, nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Davis-Lab-and-Diagnostic-Tests/425485/all/Alpha1_Antitrypsin_and_Alpha1_Antitrypsin_Phenotyping.
Bladh ML, Van Leeuwen AM. Alpha1-Antitrypsin and Alpha1-Antitrypsin Phenotyping. Davis's Lab & Diagnostic Tests. 7th ed. F.A. Davis Company; 2017. https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Davis-Lab-and-Diagnostic-Tests/425485/all/Alpha1_Antitrypsin_and_Alpha1_Antitrypsin_Phenotyping. Accessed July 17, 2019.
Bladh, M. L., & Van Leeuwen, A. M. (2017). Alpha1-Antitrypsin and Alpha1-Antitrypsin Phenotyping. In Davis's Lab & Diagnostic Tests. Available from https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Davis-Lab-and-Diagnostic-Tests/425485/all/Alpha1_Antitrypsin_and_Alpha1_Antitrypsin_Phenotyping
Bladh ML, Van Leeuwen AM. Alpha1-Antitrypsin and Alpha1-Antitrypsin Phenotyping [Internet]. In: Davis's Lab & Diagnostic Tests. F.A. Davis Company; 2017. [cited 2019 July 17]. Available from: https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Davis-Lab-and-Diagnostic-Tests/425485/all/Alpha1_Antitrypsin_and_Alpha1_Antitrypsin_Phenotyping.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Alpha1-Antitrypsin and Alpha1-Antitrypsin Phenotyping ID - 425485 A1 - Bladh,Mickey Lynn, AU - Van Leeuwen,Anne M, BT - Davis's Laboratory & Diagnostic Tests UR - https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Davis-Lab-and-Diagnostic-Tests/425485/all/Alpha1_Antitrypsin_and_Alpha1_Antitrypsin_Phenotyping PB - F.A. Davis Company ET - 7 DB - Nursing Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -