[Fr. jointe, fr. L. junctio, a joining]
The place where two or more bones meet. Some joints are fixed or immobile attachments of bones; other joints allow the bones to move along each other. A joint usually has a thin, smooth articular cartilage on each bony surface and is enclosed by a joint capsule of fibrous connective tissue. A joint is classified as immovable (synarthrodial), slightly movable (amphiarthrodial), or freely movable (diarthrodial). A synarthrodial joint is one in which the two bones are separated only by an intervening membrane, such as the cranial sutures. An amphiarthrodial joint is one having a fibrocartilaginous disk between the bony surfaces (symphysis), such as the symphysis pubis; or one with a ligament uniting the two bones (syndesmosis), such as the tibiofibular articulation. A diarthrodial joint is one in which the adjoining bone ends are covered with a thin cartilaginous sheet and joined by a joint capsule lined by a synovial membrane, which secretes synovial fluid.
SYN: SEE: arthrosis (1)

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Joints are also grouped according to their motion: ball-and-socket (enarthrodial); hinge (ginglymoid); condyloid; pivot (trochoid); gliding (arthrodial); and saddle.

Joints can move in four ways: gliding, in which one bony surface glides on another without angular or rotatory movement; angulation, occurring only between long bones, increasing or decreasing the angle between the bones; circumduction, occurring in joints composed of the head of a bone and an articular cavity, the long bone describing a series of circles, the whole forming a cone; and rotation, in which a bone moves about a central axis without moving from this axis. Angular movement, if it occurs forward, is called flexion; if backward, extension; if away from the body, abduction; and toward the median plane of the body, adduction.

Because of their location and constant use, joints are prone to stress, injury, and inflammation. The main diseases affecting the joints are rheumatic fever, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and gout. Injuries comprise contusions, sprains, dislocations, and penetrating wounds.

acromioclavicular joint

ABBR: AC joint A gliding or plane joint between the acromion and the acromial end of the clavicle.

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ACROMIOCLAVICULAR JOINT The AC joint capsule AND ligaments

amphidiarthrodial joint

A joint that is both ginglymoid and arthrodial.

ankle joint

SEE: Ankle.

arthrodial joint

Diarthrosis permitting a gliding motion.
SYN: SEE: gliding joint

ball-and-socket joint

A joint in which the round end of one bone fits into the cavity of another bone.
SYN: SEE: enarthrodial joint; SEE: multiaxial joint; SEE: polyaxial joint

biaxial joint

A joint with two chief movement axes at right angles to each other.

bilocular joint

A joint separated into two sections by interarticular cartilage.

bleeders' joint

Hemorrhage into joint space in hemophiliacs.
SYN: SEE: hemophilic joint

Budin joint

SEE: Budin joint

cartilaginous joint

A joint with cartilage between the bones.

Charcot joint

SEE: Charcot, Jean M.

Chopart joint

SEE: Chopart, François

Clutton joint

SEE: Clutton joint

cochlear joint

A hinge joint permitting lateral motion.
SYN: SEE: spiral joint

compound joint

A joint made up of several bones.

condylar joint

SEE: Ellipsoid joint.

condyloid joint

A joint permitting all forms of angular movement except axial rotation.

cracking joint

The sound produced by forcible movement of a joint by contracting the muscles that contract or extend a joint, esp. the metacarpophalangeal joints. The cause is not known.
SEE: crepitation

craniomandibular joint

SEE: Temporomandibular joint

diarthrodial joint

A joint characterized by the presence of a cavity within the capsule separating the bones, permitting considerable freedom of movement.

dry joint

Arthritis of the chronic villous type.

elbow joint

The hinge joint between the humerus and the ulna and the radius of the forearm.

ellipsoid joint

A joint with two axes of motion through the same bone.
SYN: SEE: condylar joint

enarthrodial joint

SEE: Ball-and-socket joint.

facet joint

Any of the zygapophyseal joints of the vertebral column between the articulating facets of each pair of vertebrae.

false joint

SEE: Nonunion.

fibrous joint

Any of the joints connected by fibrous tissue.

flail joint

A joint that is extremely relaxed, the distal portion of the limb being almost beyond voluntary control.

ginglymoid joint

A synovial joint having only forward and backward motion, as a hinge.
SYN: SEE: ginglymus
SEE: hinge joint

gliding joint

SEE: Arthrodial joint.

hemophilic joint

SEE: Bleeders' joint.

hinge joint

A synovial joint in which two bones flex and extend in only one plane, usually because collateral (side) ligaments limit the direction of motion, as in the elbow joint.

hip joint

A synovial ball-and-socket joint in which the head of the femur fits into the acetabulum of the hip bone. More than seven separate ligaments hold the joint together and restrict its movements.

immovable joint

SEE: Synarthrosis.

intercarpal joint

Any of the articulations formed by the carpal bones in relation to one another.

irritable joint

A recurrent joint inflammation of unknown cause.

knee joint

The joint formed by the femur, patella, and tibia.

midcarpal joint

A combined joint between the navicular, lunate, and triquetrum bones proximally and the distal row of the carpal bones.

midtarsal joint

The calcaneocuboid joint plus the talocalcaneonavicular joint.
SYN: SEE: Chopart joint; SEE: transverse tarsal joint

movable joint

A slightly movable or freely movable joint, amphiarthrodial and diarthrodial, respectively.

multiaxial joint

SEE: Ball-and-socket joint.

native joint

A natural joint present in the body without surgical modification as opposed to a prosthetic joint.

pivot joint

A joint that permits rotation of a bone, the joint being formed by a pivot-like process that turns within a ring, or by a ringlike structure that turns on a pivot.
SYN: SEE: rotary joint; SEE: trochoid joint

plane joint

A synovial joint between bone surfaces, in which only gliding movements are possible.

polyaxial joint

SEE: Ball-and-socket joint.

prosthetic joint

An artificial joint. In the U.S., prosthetic joints are most often inserted into the knee or the hip.

receptive joint

SEE: Saddle joint.

rotary joint

SEE: Pivot joint.

sacroiliac joint

The articulation between the sacrum and the ilium of the hip bone. Joint movement is limited because of interlocking of the articular surfaces.

saddle joint

A joint in which the opposing surfaces are reciprocally concavoconvex.
SYN: SEE: receptive joint

shoulder joint

The ball-and-socket joint between the head of the humerus and the glenoid cavity of the scapula.

simple joint

A joint composed of two bones.

spheroid joint

A multiaxial joint with spheroid surfaces.

spiral joint

SEE: Cochlear joint.

sternoclavicular joint

The joint space between the sternum and the medial extremity of the clavicle.

stiff joint

A joint with reduced mobility.

subtalar joint

Any of the three articular surfaces on the inferior surface of the talus.

sutural joint

An articulation between two cranial or facial bones.

synarthrodial joint

SEE: Synarthrosis.

synovial joint

A joint in which the articulating surfaces are separated by synovial fluid.
SEE: joint for illus

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talocrural joint

SEE: Ankle.

tarsometatarsal joint

A joint composed of three arthrodial joints whose bones articulate with the bases of the metatarsal bones.

temporomandibular joint

Either of the encapsulated double synovial joints between the condylar processes of the mandible and the temporal bones of the cranium. These joints are separated by an articular disk and function as an upper gliding joint and a lower modified hinge or ginglymoid joint.

transverse tarsal joint

SEE: Midtarsal joint

trochoid joint

SEE: Pivot joint.

ulnomeniscal-triquetral joint

The functional articulation of the distal ulna, articular disk, and triquetrum. The disk may subluxate following injury or with arthritis and block supination of the forearm.

uniaxial joint

A joint moving on a single axis.

unilocular joint

A joint with a single cavity.