Nursing Central is the award-winning, complete mobile solution for nurses and students. Look up information on diseases, tests, and procedures; then consult the database with 5,000+ drugs or refer to 65,000+ dictionary terms. Explore these free sample topics:
-- The first section of this topic is shown below --
To assist in establishing a diagnosis of breast disease; in the presence of breast cancer, this test is also used to assist in evaluating prognosis and management of response to therapy.
Breast tissue or cells.
(Method: Macroscopic and microscopic examination of tissue for biopsy; cytochemical or immunohistochemical for estrogen and progesterone receptors, Ki67, PCNA, P53; flow cytometry for DNA ploidy and S-phase fraction; immunohistochemical or FISH for Her-2/neu) Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a cytogenic technique that uses fluorescent-labelled DNA probes to detect specific chromosome abnormalities. Favorable findings:
- Biopsy: No abnormal cells or tissue.
- DNA ploidy: Majority diploid cell population.
- SPF: Low fraction of replicating cells in total cell population.
- Her-2/neu, Ki67, PCNA, and P53: Negative to low percentage of stained cells.
- Estrogen and progesterone receptors: High percentage of stained cells.