Cancer Markers

Cancer Markers is a topic covered in the Davis's Lab & Diagnostic Tests.

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Synonym/Acronym:
Cancer markers, Cancer antigens, Tumor markers, α1-Fetoprotein, anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase gene (ALK), BRAC-1, BRAC-2, BRAF, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3), cancer antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), cancer antigen 27.29 (CA 27.29), epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR), HCG, HE4, HER-2–Neu, KRAS, methylated Septin 9 DNA.

Rationale
To identify the presence of various cancers, such as breast and ovarian, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of cancer treatment.

Patient Preparation
There are no food, fluid, activity, or medication restrictions unless by medical direction.

Normal Findings
Method: Chemiluminometric immunoassay.

α1-FetoproteinMales and Females (Conventional Units)SI Units (Conventional Units × 1)
Less than 2 wk5000–100,000 ng/mL5000–100,000 mcg/L
15 day—1 moLess than 60,000 ng/mLLess than 60,000 mcg/L
2 moLess than 1000 ng/mLLess than 1000 mcg/L
3 moLess than 300 ng/mLLess than 300 mcg/L
4 moLess than 200 ng/mLLess than 200 mcg/L
5—11 moLess than 100 ng/mLLess than 100 mcg/L
1 yr and olderLess than 10 ng/mLLess than 10 mcg/L
Values may be higher for premature newborns. Values decrease rapidly after the neonatal period and normalize after the first year of life.
Smoking StatusConventional UnitsSI Units (Conventional Units × 1)
CEA
 SmokerLess than 5 ng/mLLess than 5 mcg/L
 NonsmokerLess than 2.5 ng/mLLess than 2.5 mcg/L
Conventional UnitsSI Units (Conventional Units × 1)
CA 125
 Less than 35 units/mLLess than 35 kilo units/L
CA 15-3
 Less than 25 units/mLLess than 25 kilo units/L
CA 19-9
 Less than 35 units/mLLess than 35 kilo units/L
CA 27.29
 Less than 38.6 units/mLLess than 38.6 kilo units/L
HCG
Greater than 5 milli-international units/mL in males or nonpregnant femalesGreater than 5 international units/L in males or nonpregnant females

Critical Findings and Potential Interventions
N/A

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Synonym/Acronym:
Cancer markers, Cancer antigens, Tumor markers, α1-Fetoprotein, anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase gene (ALK), BRAC-1, BRAC-2, BRAF, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3), cancer antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), cancer antigen 27.29 (CA 27.29), epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR), HCG, HE4, HER-2–Neu, KRAS, methylated Septin 9 DNA.

Rationale
To identify the presence of various cancers, such as breast and ovarian, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of cancer treatment.

Patient Preparation
There are no food, fluid, activity, or medication restrictions unless by medical direction.

Normal Findings
Method: Chemiluminometric immunoassay.

α1-FetoproteinMales and Females (Conventional Units)SI Units (Conventional Units × 1)
Less than 2 wk5000–100,000 ng/mL5000–100,000 mcg/L
15 day—1 moLess than 60,000 ng/mLLess than 60,000 mcg/L
2 moLess than 1000 ng/mLLess than 1000 mcg/L
3 moLess than 300 ng/mLLess than 300 mcg/L
4 moLess than 200 ng/mLLess than 200 mcg/L
5—11 moLess than 100 ng/mLLess than 100 mcg/L
1 yr and olderLess than 10 ng/mLLess than 10 mcg/L
Values may be higher for premature newborns. Values decrease rapidly after the neonatal period and normalize after the first year of life.
Smoking StatusConventional UnitsSI Units (Conventional Units × 1)
CEA
 SmokerLess than 5 ng/mLLess than 5 mcg/L
 NonsmokerLess than 2.5 ng/mLLess than 2.5 mcg/L
Conventional UnitsSI Units (Conventional Units × 1)
CA 125
 Less than 35 units/mLLess than 35 kilo units/L
CA 15-3
 Less than 25 units/mLLess than 25 kilo units/L
CA 19-9
 Less than 35 units/mLLess than 35 kilo units/L
CA 27.29
 Less than 38.6 units/mLLess than 38.6 kilo units/L
HCG
Greater than 5 milli-international units/mL in males or nonpregnant femalesGreater than 5 international units/L in males or nonpregnant females

Critical Findings and Potential Interventions
N/A

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