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[carcino- + -gen]
Any substance or agent that produces cancer or increases the risk of developing cancer in humans or animals. SEE TABLE: Carcinogens
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|Carcinogen||Type of Agent||Organs or Tissues Commonly Damaged||Comments|
|Alcohol consumption||Consumer toxin||Upper aerodigestive tracts, esp. mouth and pharynx and larynx||Effect is most pronounced in people who smoke|
|Arsenic||Chemical||Blood, bone marrow, digestive tract, skin, urinary bladder, other organ systems||May contaminate water supply|
|Asbestos||Mineral||Respiratory tract, pleura and peritoneum||Associated with lung cancers and mesotheliomas. Effect is most pronounced in people who have smoked|
|Cigarette smoke||Consumer toxin||Aerodigestive tracts, other organs||Also a major cause of cardiovascular disease|
|Formaldehyde||Chemical||Nasopharynx, blood and bone marrow||Used as an embalming agent|
|Hepatitis B||Virus||Liver||Exposure to blood or body fluids|
|Hepatitis C||Virus||Liver||Exposure to blood or body fluids|
|Human Papillomavirus||Virus||Epithelial cells of the oropharynx and genitalia||Interpersonal contact, e.g., sexually transmitted|
|Mustard Gas||Chemical||Blistering agent||First used in WWI|
|Smokeless tobacco||Consumer toxin||Oropharynx, gastrointestinal tract||Retained in the buccal mucosa. Also known as “spit tobacco”|
|Sunshine (solar radiation/ ultraviolet radiation)||Physical||Skin, mucous membranes||Cause of basal cell, squamous cell carcinomas, melanoma. Outdoor exposures or indoor (tanning booths)|
|Vinyl chloride||Chemical||Liver, possibly brain||Used in the chemical industry to make plastic/ polymers|
|X-rays and other forms of ionizing radiation||Physical||Many organs, depending on those that are penetrated||Used in diagnostic applications in health care; exposure to radioactive elements|
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Venes, Donald, editor. "Carcinogen." Taber's Medical Dictionary, 24th ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2021. Nursing Central, nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/737823/all/carcinogen.
Carcinogen. In: Venes DD, ed. Taber's Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company; 2021. https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/737823/all/carcinogen. Accessed June 6, 2023.
Carcinogen. (2021). In Venes, D. (Ed.), Taber's Medical Dictionary (24th ed.). F.A. Davis Company. https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/737823/all/carcinogen
Carcinogen [Internet]. In: Venes DD, editors. Taber's Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company; 2021. [cited 2023 June 06]. Available from: https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/737823/all/carcinogen.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
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