[tox(ic) + -in]
A poisonous substance; a poison.
SEE: antitoxin; SEE: hazardous material; SEE: health hazard; SEE: permissible exposure limits; SEE: phytotoxin; SEE: right-to-know law; SEE: toxoid
A toxin consisting of three proteins made by Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax toxin includes protective antigen, which helps lethal and edema factors enter and kill cells by disrupting the normal biochemical functions of the cell membrane.
SEE: Bacillus anthracis
Any of the toxins produced by bacteria that cause cell damage. They include exotoxins, e.g., those secreted by Staphylococcus aureus and Corynebacterium diphtheriae, and endotoxins. Endotoxins continue to cause damage even after the bacteria are killed.
SEE: bacteria; SEE: endotoxin; SEE: exotoxin
botulinus toxin A neurotoxin that is produced by Clostridium botulinum (botulinum), blocks the release of acetylcholine, and is the causative agent of botulism. Seven types of the toxin, labeled A through G, have been identified. The toxin may be used cosmetically to efface skin wrinkles and to treat neurological conditions such as torticollis.
SYN: SEE: botulin
Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin
A two-component protein toxin released by Clostridium botulinum. One part of this binary toxin binds to receptors on the surface of cells, which permits the second component of the toxin to catalyze the destruction of the cytoskeleton.
Any of a group of toxins that can cause necrosis of the skin. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus produces several such toxins.
SYN: SEE: exfoliative toxin
SEE: Kawasaki disease; SEE: staphylococcal scaled skin syndrome; SEE: toxic shock syndrome
SEE: Dick toxin
The toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
diphtheria toxin for Schick test
The toxin used for determining immunity to diphtheria.
SEE: Schick test
The exotoxin of various species of Shigella.
SEE: streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin
SEE: Dermonecrotic toxin.
A cellular toxin (such as diphtheria toxin), hybridized with another molecule (such as a monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes a target cell). It is used to identify and destroy abnormal cells without harming healthy cells. Fusion toxins are chimeric proteins, made from two unrelated sources.
SEE: Heat-labile enterotoxin.
Either of two disease-causing proteins (Ib and Ia) released by the bacterium Clostridium perfringens. Ia binds to Ib and gains entry into the host cell cytoplasm. Ib subsequently disrupts the actin cytoskeleton and kills the cell.
Any chemical or physical agent that destroys or inactivates the ovaries or testes, damages chromosomes, adversely effects reproductive hormones, or has a harmful impact on a developing fetus.
SEE: Shiga toxin.