[hyper- + calci- + -emia]
An excessive amount of calcium in the blood. Causes include primary hyperparathyroidism, lithium therapy, malignancies (such as solid tumors and hematological malignancies), vitamin D intoxication, hyperthyroidism, vitamin A intoxication, aluminum intoxication, and milk-alkali syndrome.
Clinically, fatigue, depression, confusion, nausea, vomiting, constipation, renal stones, increased urination, and occasional cardiac arrhythmias are present. A short Q-T interval is present.
Patients initially should be given hydration with saline, followed by diuretics after dehydration has been resolved. Bisphosphonates, glucocorticoids, and other drugs may be administered to lower serum calcium levels. Therapy is also directed at the underlying cause of the high serum calcium levels, e.g., by treating underlying malignancies or by excising overactive parathyroid glands.
There's more to see -- the rest of this topic is available only to subscribers.