The act of inhaling and exhaling air.
SEE: chest; SEE: respiration
SEE: Kussmaul breathing
An abnormal breathing pattern marked by prolonged inspiration followed by an inspiratory pause. This is usually associated with brainstem injuries.
Any technique that improves respiration. Such breathing includes the provision of supplemental oxygen, bag-valve-mask ventilation, noninvasive ventilation, mechanical ventilation, and mouth-to-mouth ventilation.
Harsh breathing with prolonged wheezing heard throughout expiration.
An irregular, uncoordinated breathing pattern common in infants.
SEE: Biot breathing
SEE: Bronchial sounds.
continuous positive-pressure breathing
A method of mechanically assisted pulmonary inflation. A device administers air or oxygen to the lungs under a continuous pressure that is always greater than zero.
SYN: SEE: continuous positive-pressure ventilation
A controlled method of breathing in which the diaphragm is used for inspiration and the abdominal muscles for expiration. This technique improves exertional dyspnea, esp. in patients with chronic pulmonary disease.
SYN: SEE: abdominodiaphragmatic breathing
A respiratory pattern in which the air in the mouth and pharynx is forced into the lungs by gulping and swallowing it. This may be observed in patients whose respiratory muscles are weak or paralyzed.
A technique of breathing in which the patient with inspiratory muscle weakness increases the volume of air breathed in by taking several gulps of air, closing the mouth, and forcing air into the lungs.
high-altitude periodic breathing
Brief episodes of central apnea that occur in hypoxemic environments, esp. in elevations that are 13,000 ft (approx. 3,962 meters) or more above sea level.
inspiratory resistive breathing
Inspiration with an added workload to increase the strength and endurance of the inspiratory muscles.
intermittent positive-pressure breathing
ABBR: IPPB A mechanical method for assisting pulmonary ventilation with a device that administers air or oxygen for the inflation of the lungs under positive pressure. Exhalation is usually passive.
SYN: SEE: intermittent positive-pressure ventilation
SEE: Kussmaul, Adolph
Inhaling and exhaling through the oral cavity instead of the nose. It occurs in people who have abnormal facial bone structure, as well as in individuals with nasal or sinus congestion. It has been associated with and may cause developmental abnormalities of the facial structure, esp. elongation of the facial bones.
An irregular respiratory pattern marked by alternating periods of rapid and slow respirations and by apneic periods lasting 15 sec or less. It is a commonly observed breathing pattern in neonates and infants and in some individuals having sleep apnea.
An expiratory maneuver in which the patient exhales through puckered lips to slow expiratory flow and to create slight back pressure. This action may prevent premature closure of intrapulmonary airways, esp. in the patient with chronic obstructive lung disease.
In basic life support, giving positive pressure breaths (mouth-to-mouth, through a pocket mask, or by bag-mask ventilation) to a patient who has a pulse but is not breathing on his or her own.
Breathing in which the volume of inspired and expired air is diminished, e.g., 200 mL per breath in adults. It is common in older patients, patients with rib or pleural pain, or restrictive lung diseases.