vomiting is a topic covered in the Taber's Medical Dictionary.

To view the entire topic, please or purchase a subscription.

Nursing Central is the award-winning, complete mobile solution for nurses and students. Look up information on diseases, tests, and procedures; then consult the database with 5,000+ drugs or refer to 65,000+ dictionary terms. Explore these free sample topics:

Nursing Central

-- The first section of this topic is shown below --

(vom′ĭt-ĭng )

Ejection through the mouth of the contents of the gastrointestinal tract. Vomiting, with diarrhea and hemorrhage, is an important potential cause of dehydration; it may also contribute to aspiration and deplete body stores of potassium. It may result from toxins, drugs (such as those given for cancer chemotherapy), uremia, and fevers; cerebral tumors; meningitis; diseases of the stomach such as ulcer, cancer, dysmotility, or dyspepsia; hormonal changes in early pregnancy, reflux from pressure of the gravid uterus in pregnancy, uterine or ovarian disease, irritation of the fauces, intestinal parasites, biliary colic; intestinal obstruction; motion sickness; and neurological disorders such as migraine. Vomiting may also be psychogenic in origin. Esophageal vomiting may result from reflux or obstruction.
SYN: SEE: emesis SEE TABLE: Causes of Vomiting; SEE: bulimia; SEE: hyperemesis gravidarum

TREATMENT
Antiemetic medicines may be administered by orally, rectally, intramuscularly, or intravenously. Fluids may be given by mouth if the patient will accept them. If vomiting continues, and dehydration or acid-base imbalances occurs, intravenous fluids and electrolytes must be used to replace those lost in the vomit.

PATIENT CARE
Causative factors such as drugs, food, diseases, and psychological factors are assessed and treated if possible. Frequency, amount, time, and characteristics of the vomit are assessed. The patient is positioned to protect the airway and prevent aspiration; in the hospital, suction equipment is provided for the patient’s safety. Food and fluids are withheld for several hours, and oral care is offered. For the pre-operative patient, restriction of foods and fluids for approx. 8 hr before surgery helps prevent postoperative vomiting. Comfort measures, e.g., a cool cloth applied to the face, are instituted. Vital signs, skin turgor, and urine output are monitored for evidence of dehydration. The health care giver promotes a calm environment and provides distraction.

Causes of Vomiting

CauseExample
Gastrointestinal diseasesEsophageal obstruction, gastric distention, peptic ulcer disease, gastroparesis, cholecystitis, cholelithiasis, pancreatitis, intestinal obstruction, ileus
Metabolic illnessesHyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypercalcemia, adrenal insufficiency, uremia, ketoacidosis
IntoxicationsAcetaminophen, arsenic, mercury, methanol, opiates, mescaline, food poisoning
Drug side effectsAntidepressants, digitalis, erythromycin, theophyllines, many chemotherapeutic drugs for the treatment of cancer, e.g., cisplatin
Intracranial illnessesMigraine, meningitis, intracranial hemorrhage
Febrile illnessesStrep throat (esp. in children), pyelonephritis
PregnancyHyperemesis gravidarum

-- To view the remaining sections of this topic, please or purchase a subscription --

Citation

* When formatting your citation, note that all book, journal, and database titles should be italicized* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - vomiting ID - 761645 Y1 - 2017 PB - Taber's Medical Dictionary UR - https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/761645/all/vomiting ER -