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The human body has more than 650 muscles, the total varying according to the authority, as some list as separate muscles what others regard as single muscles. Most of the muscles occur in pairs, reflecting the body's bilateral symmetry; five occur singly. In the lists that follow, muscles are grouped as to body area. Following those groupings is an alphabetical index of all of the muscles included, and the body area in which each may be found.


auricularis anterior
aw-rĭk″ū-lā′rĭs ăn-tē′rĭ-or
Draws pinna of ear forward and upward.
Superficial temporal fascia.
Helix of ear anteriorly.

auricularis posterior
aw-rĭk″ū-lā′rĭs pŏs-tē′rē-or
Draws pinna of ear backward.
Mastoid process.
Root of auricle.

auricularis superior
aw-rĭk″ū-lā′rĭs sū-pē′rē-or
Elevates pinna of ear.
Galea aponeurotica.
Upper portion of pinna of ear.

Compresses cheek, retracts angle of mouth.
Alveolar process of maxilla, pterygomandibular ligament, buccinator ridge of mandible.
Orbicularis oris.

Alters shape of crystalline lens in accommodation.
(1) Meridional: Junctions of cornea and sclera. (2) Circular: Fibersforming a circle close to iris.
(1) External layers of choroid. (2) Ciliary process.
Short ciliary.

corrugator supercilii
kōr′ū-gā′tōr sū-pĕr-sĭl′ĭ-ī
Draws eyebrows down and in.
Inner end of superciliary arch.
Skin above orbital arch.

depressor anguli oris
dē-prĕs′or ăng′ū-līō′rĭs
Depresses angle of mouth.
External oblique line of mandible.
Angle of mouth.

depressor labii inferioris
dē-prĕs′or lā′bĭ-ī ĭn-fē″rĭ-ō′rĭs
Draws lower lip down.
External oblique line of the mandible.
Lower lip and orbicularis oris.

depressor septi nasi
dē-prĕs′or sĕp′tĭ nā′sī
Draws outer wall of nostril downward.
Incisive fossa of superior maxillary bone.
Septum and ala of nose.

dilator naris anterior
dĭl′ă-tor nā′rĭs ăn-tē′rĭ-or
Dilates apertures of nostril.
Cartilage of ala of nose.
Border of ala.

dilator naris posterior
dĭl′ă-tor nā′rĭs pŏs-tē′rē-or
Dilates apertures of nostril.
Nasal notch of superior maxilla and the sesamoid cartilages.
Integument of margin of nostril.

Anterior portion of occipitofrontalis muscle, elevates skin of forehead and eyebrows.
Epicranial aponeurosis.
Skin of forehead and eyebrows.
Facial nerve (CN VII).

levator anguli oris
lē-vā′tor ăng′ū-līō′rĭs
Elevates angle of mouth.
Canine fossa of maxilla.
Angle of mouth and orbicularis oris.

levator labii superioris
lē-vā′tor lā′bĭ-īsū-pē″rē-ō′rĭs
Elevates and extends upper lip.
Lower margin of orbit, malar bone.
Upper lip.
Infraorbital branch of facial.

levator labii superioris alaeque nasi
lē-vā′tor lā′bĭ-īsū-pē″rē-ō′rĭs ā-lē′kwĕnā′sī
Elevates upper lip, dilates nostril.
Nasal process of maxilla.
Cartilage of ala of nose and upper lip.
Infraorbital branch of facial.

levator palpebrae superioris
lē-vā′tor păl′pē-brēsū-pē″rē-ō′rĭs
Raises upper eyelid.
Lesser wing of the sphenoid bone.
Upper tarsal cartilage.

Raises mandible.
Zygomatic arch and malar process of superior maxilla.
Angle of ramus and coronoid process of mandible.
Mandibular division of trigeminal.

Elevates and protrudes lower lip, wrinkles skin of chin.
Incisive fossa of mandible.
Integument of chin.

Consists of transverse and alar parts.
Depresses cartilaginous part of nose and draws the alae medially.
Bridge of nose.
Buccal branches of facial.

obliquus inferior oculi
ŏb-lī′kwŭs ĭn-fē′rĭ-or ŏk′ū-lī
Rotates eyeball up and out.
Orbital plate of superior maxillary bone.
Sclerotic coat at right angles to insertion of rectus externus just below it.

obliquus superior oculi
ŏb-lī′kwŭs sū-pē′rĕ-or ŏk′ū-lī
Rotates eyeball down and out.
Above optic foramen.
By a tendon through trochlea to the sclerotic coat.

Consists of (1) occipitalis and (2) frontalis bellies.
(1) Draws scalp back. (2) Draws scalp forward, raises eyebrows.
(1) Occipital and temporal bones. (2) Procerus, corrugator, and orbicularisoris muscles.
Galea aponeurotica.

orbicularis oculi
or-bĭk″ū-lā′rĭs ŏk′ū-lī
Closes eyelid, wrinkles forehead vertically, compresses lacrimal sac.
(1) (Pars lacrimalis) Lacrimal bone. (2) (Parsorbitalis) Frontal processes of maxilla and frontal bone. (3) (Parspalpebralis) Inner canthus.
(1) Joins palpebral portion. (2) Encircles orbit to orbit. (3)Outer canthus.

orbicularis oris
or-bĭk″ū-lā′rĭs ō′rĭs
Closes lips.
Nasal septum and canine fossa of mandible by accessory fibers.
Buccinator and adjacent muscles surrounding mouth.

Draws skin of forehead down.
Bridge of nose.
Skin over root of nose.

pterygoideus lateralis
tĕr-ĭ-goyd′ē-ŭs lăt″ĕr-ā′lĭs
Brings jaw forward, moves jaw from side to side, opens jaws.
(1) Outer plate of pterygoid process. (2) Great wing of sphenoid and infratemporal ridge.
Neck of condyle of mandible.
Lateral pterygoid from trigeminal nerve.

pterygoideus medialis
tĕr-ĭ-goyd′ē-ŭs mē-dĭ-ā′lĭs
Closes jaw by raising and advancing it.
Pterygoid fossa of sphenoid bone.
Inner surface of angle of mandible.
Medial pterygoid from trigeminal nerve.

rectus externus or lateralis
rĕk′tŭs ĕks-tĕr′nŭs,lăt″ĕr-ā′lĭs
Rotates eyeball outward.
Margin of sphenoidal fissure and outer margin of optic foramen.
Sclerotic coat.

rectus inferior
rĕk′tŭs ĭn-fē′rĭ-or
Rotates eyeball downward.
Lower margin of optic foramen.
Sclerotic coat.

rectus internus or medialis
rĕk′tŭs ĭn-tĕr′nŭs,mē-dĭ-ā′lĭs
Rotates eyeball inward.
Lower margin of optic foramen.
Sclerotic coat.

rectus superior
rĕk′tŭs sū-pē′rē-or
Rotates eyeball upward.
Upper margin of optic foramen.
Sclerotic coat.

Draws angle of mouth outward (“laughing muscle”).
Fascia over masseter muscle.
Angle of mouth.
Facial, buccal branch.

Closes jaws.
Temporal fossa and temporal fascia.
Coronoid process of lower jaw.
Trigeminal, mandibular division.

zygomaticus major
zī-gō-măt′ĭ-kŭs mā′jor
Draws upper lip backward, upward, and outward.
Zygomatic bone, zygomatic arch.
Angle of mouth.

zygomaticus minor
zī-gō-măt′ĭ-kŭs mī′nor
Draws the upper lip up and out.
Zygomatic bone behind the maxillary arch.
Angle of mouth, orbicularis oris.


Anterior part of antitragus.
Opposite side at larger auricular fissure.
Posterior auricular branch of facial.

helicis major and minor
hĕl′ĭ-sĭs mā′jor, mī′nor
Tighten the skin of auditory canal.
Tuberosity on helix.
Rim of helix.
Auriculotemporal and posterior auricular.

obliquus auriculae
ŏb-lī′kwŭs aw-rĭk′ū-lē
Concha of the ear.
Fossa of antihelix.
Posterior auricular branch of facial.

Depresses base of the stapes.
Interior of pyramid.
Neck of stapes.
Tympanic branch of facial.

tensor tympani
tĕn′sōr tĭm′păn-ī
Draws the membrana tympani tense.
Temporal tube, eustachian tube and canal.
Handle of malleus.
Branch of mandibular through otic ganglion.

Outer part of tragus.
Temporal branch of facial.

transversus auriculae
trăns-vĕr′sŭs aw-rĭk′ū-lē
Retracts helix.
Cranial surface of pinna.
Circumference of pinna.
Posterior auricular branch of facial.


constrictor pharyngis inferior
kŏn-strĭk′tor făr-ĭn′jĭs ĭn-fē′rĭ-or
Narrows pharynx, as in swallowing.
Sides of cricoid and thyroid cartilage.
Posterior raphe of pharyngeal wall.
Pharyngeal plexus.

constrictor pharyngis medius
kŏn-strĭk′tor făr-ĭn′jĭsmē′dē-ŭs
Narrows pharynx, as in swallowing.
Both cornua of hyoid bone and stylohyoid ligament.
Middle of posterior pharyngeal wall.
Pharyngeal plexus.

constrictor pharyngis superior
kŏn-strĭk′tor făr-ĭn′jĭssū-pē′rē-or
Narrows pharynx, as in swallowing.
Internal pterygoid plate, pterygomandibular ligament, jaw, side of tongue.
Posterior pharyngeal wall.
Pharyngeal plexus.

Consists of (1) anterior and (2) posterior bellies.
(1) Draws hyoid bone forward. (2) Draws hyoid bone backward.
(1) Lower border of lower jaw. (2) Mastoid groove of temporal bone.
Intermediate tendon between both bellies.
(1) Mylohyoid. (2) Facial.

Protrudes and retracts tongue, elevates hyoid.
Inner surface of symphysis of mandible.
Hyoid and bottom of tongue.

suprahyoid muscle, pulls hyoid bone upward and anteriorly, shortens floor of mouth, widens pharynx.
inferior mental spine of mandible.
body of hyoid bone.
C1 nerve fibers via hypoglossal nerve.

Elevates back of tongue and constricts fauces.
Undersurface of soft palate.
Side of tongue.
Pharyngeal plexus.

Depresses side of tongue and retracts tongue.
Cornua and body of hyoid.
Side of tongue.

levator veli palatini
lē-vā′tor vē′lī păl″ă-tī′nī
Elevates soft palate.
Petrous portion of temporal bone and cartilaginous eustacian tube.
Aponeurosis of soft palate.
Pharyngeal plexus.

Elevates sides and center of tongue.
Undersurface of tongue.
Edge of tongue.

longus capitis
lŏng′ŭs kăp′ĭ-tīs
Flexes head.
Transverse processes of 3rd to 6th cervical vertebrae.
Occipital bone, basilar process.
Branches of 1st to 3rd cervical nerves.

longus colli
lŏng′ŭs kōl′ī
Consists of three parts: (1) superior oblique, (2) inferior oblique,and (3) vertical.
Twists and bends neck forward.
(1) Transverse processes of 3rd to 5th cervical vertebrae. (2) Bodies of 1st to 3rd thoracic vertebrae. (3) Bodies of three upper thoracic and three lower cervical vertebrae.
(1) Anterior tubercle of atlas. (2) Transverse processes of 5th and 6th cervical vertebrae. (3) Bodies of 2nd to 4th cervical vertebrae.
Branches of 2nd to 7th cervical.

Elevates floor of mouth and hyoid, depresses jaw.
Mylohyoid line of mandible.
Body of hyoid and median raphe.

Depresses hyoid.
Upper border of scapula.
Hyoid bone.
Upper cervical through ansa hypoglossi.

pars thyropharyngea musculi constrictoris pharyngis inferioris
părz thī″rō-fă-rĭn′jē-ămŭs′kū-lī kŏn-strĭk-tŏr′ĭsfă-rĭn′jĭs ĭn-fēr″ē-ŏr′ĭs

Narrows fauces and shuts off nasopharynx.
Soft palate.
Thyroid cartilage and aponeurosis of the pharynx.
Pharyngeal plexus.

Wrinkles skin of neck and chest, depresses jaw and lower lip.
Clavicle, acromion and fascia over deltoid, and pectoralis major.
Lower border of mandible, risorius, and opposite platysma.
Cervical branch of facial.

rectus capitis anterior
rĕk′tŭs kăp′ĭ-tĭsăn-tē′rĭ-or
Turns and inclines the head.
Base of atlas.
Occipital bone, basilar process.
Between 1st and 2nd cervical.

rectus capitis lateralis
rĕk′tŭs kăp′ĭ-tĭslăt″ĕr-ā′lĭs
Inclines head laterally and supports it.
Transverse process of atlas.
Jugular process of occipital bone.
Between 1st and 2nd cervical nerves.

Elevates nasopharynx.
Eustachian tube close to nasopharynx.
Posterior portion of the pharyngopalatinus.
Pharyngeal plexus.

scalenus anterior
skā-lē′nŭs ăn-tē′rĭ-or
Elevates 1st rib and flexes neck.
Transverse processes of 3rd to 6th cervical vertebrae.
Tubercle of 1st rib.
Cervical plexus.

scalenus medius
skā-lē′nŭs mē′dē-ŭs
Elevates 1st rib and flexes neck.
Transverse processes of 2nd to 6th cervical vertebrae.
First rib.
Cervical plexus.

scalenus posterior
skā-lē′nŭs pŏs-tē′rē-or
Elevates 2nd rib and flexes neck.
Transverse processes of 4th to 6th cervical vertebrae.
Second rib.
Cervical and brachial plexus.

Rotates and laterally flexes neck.
By two heads, from sternum and clavicle.
Mastoid process and outer part of superior curved line of occipital bone.
Spinal accessory.

Depresses hyoid bone.
Manubrium sterni and 1st costal cartilage.
Body of hyoid bone.
Upper cervical through ansa hypoglossi.

Depresses thyroid cartilage.
Sternum and 1st costal cartilage.
Side of thyroid cartilage.
Upper cervical through ansa hypoglossi.

Retracts and elevates tongue.
Styloid process.
Side of tongue.

Elevates hyoid, drawing it up and back.
Styloid process.
Body of hyoid bone.

Elevates and dilates pharynx.
Styloid process.
Thyroid cartilage and side of pharynx.

tensor veli palatini
tĕn′sōr vē′lī păl″ă-tī′nī
Stretches soft palate.
Spine of sphenoid, scaphoid fossa of internal pterygoid process and eustachian tube.
Posterior border of hard palate and aponeurosis of soft palate.
Otic ganglion, trigeminal nerve.

Depresses hyoid bone; elevates thyroid cartilage if hyoid bone is fixed.
Side of thyroid cartilage.
Cornu and body of hyoid bone.

Narrows inferior pharynx during swallowing.
Inferior cornu and oblique line of thyroid cartilage.
Median raphe of posterior wall of pharynx.
Laryngeal branches of vagus nerve (CN X).pars thyropharyngea musculi constrictorispharyngis inferioris.

Elevates the uvula.
Posterior nasal spine.
Forms large part of uvula.
Pharyngeal plexus.


Closes glottic opening.
Arytenoid cartilage.
Laryngeal, recurrent.

Consists of (1) arytenoideus obliquus and (2) arytenoideus transversus.
Closes glottic opening.
Arytenoid cartilage.
(1) Aryepiglottic fold. (2) Crosses between the two cartilages of the obliquus portion.
Laryngeal, recurrent.

cricoarytenoideus lateralis
Narrows glottis.
Upper border of arch of cricoid cartilage.
Muscular process of arytenoid cartilage.
Laryngeal, recurrent.

cricoarytenoideus posterior
Opens glottis.
Back of cricoid cartilage.
Muscular process of arytenoid cartilage.
Laryngeal, recurrent.

Tightens vocal cords.
Anterior surface of cricoid cartilage.
Thyroid cartilage.
Laryngeal, superior.

Relaxes vocal cords.
Thyroid cartilage.
Arytenoid cartilage.
Laryngeal, recurrent.

Depresses epiglottis.
Thyroid cartilage.
Epiglottis and sacculus laryngis.
Laryngeal, recurrent.

Thin muscle fibers along the medial edge of the thyroarytenoid muscle, relaxes posterior vocal ligament, tenses anterior vocal ligament.
Vocal process of arytenoid cartilage.
Vocal ligament.
Recurrent laryngeal branch of vagus nerve (CN X).


iliocostalis cervicis
Extends cervical spine.
Angles of 3rd to 6th ribs.
Transverse processes of 4th to 6th cervical vertebrae.
Cervical plexus.

iliocostalis lumborum
Extends lumbar spine.
With sacrospinalis.
In angles of 5th to 12th ribs.
Branches of thoracic and lumbar nerves.

iliocostalis thoracis
Keeps dorsal spine erect.
Angles of 12th to 7th ribs.
Sixth to 1st ribs and 7th cervical vertebra.
Branches of thoracic nerves.

A series.
Supports and extends vertebral column.
Undersurface of spine of one vertebra.
Spine of vertebra above.
Branches of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar nerves.

Flexes vertebral column.
Between transverse processes of contiguous vertebrae.
Branches of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar nerves.

latissimus dorsi
lă-tĭs′ĭ-mŭs dŏr′sī
Adducts, extends, and rotates arm.
Lower thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, and tip of iliac crest.
Intertubercular groove of humerus.
Brachial plexus.

levator scapulae
lĕ-vā′tor skăp′ū-lĕ
Elevates posterior angle of scapula.
Transverse process of four upper cervical vertebrae.
Superior edge of scapula.
Dorsal scapular from 5th cervical and branches of 3rd and 4thcervical.

longissimus capitis
lŏn-jĭs′ĭ-mŭs kăp′ĭ-tĭs
Keeps head erect, draws it backward or to one side.
Upper thoracic and lower and middle cervical vertebrae.
Mastoid process.
Cervical plexus.

longissimus cervicis
lŏn-jĭs′ĭ-mŭs sĕr′vĭ-sĭs
Extends cervical spine.
Upper thoracic vertebrae.
Ribs and upper lumbar and thoracic vertebrae.
Cervical plexus and upper thoracic nerves.

longissimus thoracis
lŏn-jĭs′ĭ-mŭs thō-ră′sĭs
Extends spinal column.
Transverse processes of lumbar and dorsal vertebrae.
Lowest ribs and lumbar and dorsal vertebrae.
Lumbar and thoracic nerves.

Rotates spinal column.
Sacrum, iliac spine, lumbar, cervical, and dorsal vertebrae.
Laminae and spinous processes of next four vertebrae above.
Thoracic and lumbar nerves.

obliquus capitis inferior
ŏb-lī′kwŭs kăp′ĭ-tĭs ĭn-fē′rĭ-or
Rotates head.
Spine of axis.
Transverse process of atlas.

obliquus capitis superior
ŏb-lī′kwŭs kăp′ĭ-tĭssū-pē′rē-or
Rotates head.
Transverse process of axis.
Occipital bone.

rectus capitis posterior major
rĕk′tŭs kăp′ĭ-tĭspŏs-tē′rē-or mā′jor
Rotates and draws head backward.
Spine of axis.
Inferior curved line of occipital bone.

rectus capitis posterior minor
rĕk′tŭs kăp′ĭ-tĭspŏs-tē′rē-or mī′nor
Rotates and draws head backward.
Posterior tubercle of atlas.
Inferior curved line of occipital bone.

rhomboideus major
rŏm-boy′dē-ŭs mā′jor
Retracts, elevates, and downwardly rotates scapula.
Spinous processes of 2nd to 5th thoracic vertebrae.
Vertebral border of scapula below spine.
Dorsal scapular from brachial plexus.

rhomboideus minor
rŏm-boy′dē-ŭs mī′nor
Retracts and elevates scapula.
Spinous processes of 7th cervical vertebra and 1st thoracic vertebra.
Border of scapula above spine.
Dorsal scapular from brachial plexus.

Extends and rotates the vertebral column.
Transverse processes of 2nd to 12th dorsal vertebrae.
Lamina of next vertebra above.
Branches of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar nerves.

Extends vertebral column.
Sacrum, lumbar vertebrae, iliac crest.
Iliocostalis and longissimus thoracis.
Branches of thoracic and lumbar nerves.

semispinalis capitis
Rotates and draws head backward.
Transverse processes of upper six or seven thoracic and lower four cervical vertebrae.
Occipital bone, between inferior and superior curved line.
Branches of cervical nerves.

semispinalis cervicis
Extends the vertebral column and rotates it toward the opposite side.
Transverse processes of upper five or six thoracic vertebrae.
Spines from axis to 5th cervical vertebra.
Branches of cervical nerves.

semispinalis thoracis
Extends the vertebral column and rotates it toward the opposite side.
Transverse processes of 6th to 10th thoracic vertebrae.
Spines of upper four thoracic and lower two cervical vertebrae.
Branches of thoracic nerves.

serratus posterior inferior
sĕr-ā′tŭs pŏs-tē′rē-or ĭn-fē′rĭ-or
Draws ribs back and downward.
Spines of lower two thoracic and upper two lumbar vertebrae.
Lower four ribs.
Branches of 9th to 12th thoracic nerves.

serratus posterior superior
sĕr-ā′tŭs pŏs-tē′rē-orsū-pē′rē-or
Elevates the ribs.
Spines of 7th cervical and two upper thoracic vertebrae.
Angles of 2nd to 5th ribs.
Branches of thoracic nerves.

spinalis capitis
spī-nā′lĭs kăp′ĭ-tĭs
Inconstant; from spines of upper dorsal and lower cervical vertebrae.
Blends with the semispinalis capitis.

spinalis cervicis
spī-nā′lĭs sĕr′vĭ-sĭs
Extends cervical spine.
Spines of 5th, 6th, and 7th cervical vertebrae.
Axis and, occasionally, the two vertebrae below.
Branches of cervical nerves.

spinalis thoracis
spī-nā′lĭs thō-ră′sĭs
Erects spinal column.
Spines of first two lumbar and last two thoracic vertebrae.
Spines of middle and upper thoracic vertebrae.
Branches of thoracic and lumbar nerves.

splenius capitis
splē′nē-ŭs kăp′ĭ-tĭs
Rotates and extends head.
Ligamentum nuchae, 7th cervical and first three thoracic vertebrae.
Mastoid process and superior curved line of occiput.
Branches of cervical nerves.

splenius cervicis
splē′nē-ŭs sĕr′vĭ-sĭs
Rotates and flexes head and neck.
Spines of 3rd to 6th thoracic vertebrae.
Transverse processes of 1st and 2nd cervical vertebrae.
Branches of cervical nerves.

suspensorius duodeni
sŭs-pĕn-sō′rē-ŭs doo″ō-dē′nē
Acts as a suspensory ligament. Wide, flat band of smooth muscle attached to the left crus of diaphragm and continuous with the muscular layer of the duodenum at its junction with the jejunum.
Celiac plexus.

Extends head, raises and rotates scapula.
Superior curved line of occipital, spinous processes of 7th cervical and all thoracic vertebrae.
Clavicle, acromion, base of spine of scapula.
Spinal accessory and cervical plexus.


Raises testicle.
Midportion of inguinal ligament.
Cremasteric fascia and pubic bone.

obliquus externus abdominis
ŏb-lī′kwŭs ĕks-tĕr′nŭsăb-dŏm′ĭ-nĭs
Contracts abdomen and viscera.
Lower eight ribs.
Iliac crest, Poupart's ligament, linea alba, pubic crest.
Iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal, and branches of intercostal.

obliquus internus abdominis
ŏb-lī′kwŭs ĭn-tĕr′nŭsăb-dŏm′ĭ-nĭs
Compresses viscera, flexes thorax forward.
Iliac crest, inguinal ligament, lumbar fascia.
Few lowest ribs, linea alba, pubic crest.
Iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal, and branches of intercostal.

Tightens linea alba.
Pubic crest.
Linea alba.
Branch of 12th thoracic.

quadratus lumborum
kwăd-rā′tŭs lŭm-bō′rŭm
Flexes trunk laterally and assists lumbar vertebral extension.
Iliac crest, iliolumbar ligament, lower lumbar vertebrae.
Twelfth rib and the upper lumbar vertebrae.
Branches of 1st lumbar and 12th thoracic.

rectus abdominis
rĕk′tŭs ăb-dŏm′ĭ-nĭs
Compresses or flattens abdomen.
Cartilage of 5th to 7th ribs.
Branches of 7th to 12th intercostal.

transversus abdominis
trăns-vĕr′sŭs ăb-dŏm′ĭ-nĭs
Compresses abdomen, flexes thorax.
Lumbar fascia, 7th to 12th costal cartilages, inguinal ligament, iliaccrest.
Xiphoid cartilage, linea alba, pubic crest, and iliopectineal line.
Iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal, branches of intercostal.


Constricts bulbous urethra in male; constricts urethra in female.
Central point of perineum and medial raphe.
Undersurface of bulb, spongy and cavernous part of penis; rootof clitoris.
Perineal branch of pudendal.

Supports coccyx, closes pelvic outlet.
Ischial spine and sacrospinous ligament.
Coccyx and lowest portion of sacrum.
Third and 4th sacral.

corrugator cutis ani
kōr′ū-gā′tōr kū′tĭsā′nī
Wrinkles skin of anus.
Submucous tissue, interior of anus.
Subcutaneous tissue on opposite side of anus.

depressor urethrae
dē-prĕs′or ū-rē′thrē
Depresses urethra.
Ramus of ischium near the transversus perinei profundus.
Fibers of constrictor vaginae.

Maintains erection of penis or clitoris.
Tuberosity of ischium and great sacrosciatic ligament.
Corpora cavernosa of clitoris or penis.
Perineal branch of pudendal.

levator ani
lē-vā′tor ā′nī
Supports rectum and pelvic floor, aids in defecation.
Pubis, pelvic fascia, ischial spine.
Rectum, coccyx, and fibrous raphe of perineum.
Sacral and perineal.

sphincter ani externus
sfĭngk′tĕr ā′nī ĕks-tĕr′nŭs
Closes anus.
Ring of fibers surrounding anus.
Coccyx and central point of perineum.
Hemorrhoidal branch of pudendal.

sphincter ani internus
sfĭngk′tĕr ā′nī ĭn-tĕr′nŭs
Contracts rectum and anus, but not voluntarily.
Muscular ring of rectal fibers above canal.

sphincter urethrae membranaceae
sfĭngk′tĕr ū-rē′thrēmĕm-bră-nā′sē-ē
Constricts membranous urethra.
Ramus of pubis.
Behind and in front of urethra.
Perineal branch of pudendal.

sphincter vesicae
sfĭngk′tĕr vĕs′ĭ-kē
Shuts off internal orifice of urethra.
Near urethral orifice of bladder.
Sacral and hypogastric.

transversus perinei profundus
trăns-vĕr′sŭs pĕr-ĭ-nē′īprō-fŭn′dŭs
Assists compressor urethrae.
Ramus of ischium.
Central tendon.
Perineal branch of pudendal.

transversus perinei superficialis
trăns-vĕr′sŭs pĕr-ĭ-nē′īsoo″pĕr-fĭsh-ē-ā′lĭs
Tenses central tendon.
Ramus of ischium.
Central point of perineum.
Perineal branch of pudendal.


Increases chest capacity and decreases pressure within the thoracic cavity.
Ensiform cartilage, 7th to 12th ribs, arcuate ligaments, and lumbar vertebrae.
Central tendon.

intercostalis externus
ĭn″tĕr-kŏs-tă′lĭs ĕks-tĕr′nŭs
Draws ribs together and raises ribs.
Lower border of rib.
Upper border of rib below.

intercostalis internus
ĭn″tĕr-kŏs-tă′lĭs ĭn-tĕr′nŭs
Draws ribs together and lowers ribs.
Lower border of rib.
Upper border of rib below.

levatores costarum
lē-vā-tō′rez kŏs-tā′rŭm
Raises ribs, flexes vertebral column.
Transverse process of 7th cervical and upper 11 thoracic vertebrae.
Rib next below.
Branches of intercostal.

Draws ribs together and lowers ribs.
Inconstant; inner surface of the ribs.
Inner surface of one of the ribs just below.

transversus thoracis
trăns-vĕr′sŭs thō-ră′sĭs
Narrows the chest.
Xiphoid cartilage and sternum.
Costal cartilages, 2nd to 6th ribs.
Branches of intercostal.


Raises and rotates arm.
Clavicle, acromion process, and spine of scapula.
Shaft of humerus.
Axillary (circumflex) from brachial plexus.

Rotates arm back and out.
Infraspinous fossa of scapula.
Great tuberosity of humerus.
Suprascapular from brachial plexus.

pectoralis major
pĕk″tō-ră′lĭs mā′jor
Flexes, adducts, and rotates arm.
Sternum, clavicle, and cartilages of 1st to 6th ribs.
Bicipital ridge of humerus.
Pectoral from brachial plexus.

pectoralis minor
pĕk″tō-ră′lĭs mī′nor
Draws down scapula and point to shoulder, raises ribs.
Third to 5th ribs.
Coracoid process of scapula.
Pectoral from brachial plexus.

serratus anterior
sĕr-ā′tŭs ăn-tē′rĭ-or
Elevates ribs, rotates scapula.
Upper eight or nine ribs.
Angles and vertebral border of scapula.
Long thoracic from brachial plexus.

Draws clavicle down and forward or elevates the 1st rib.
First rib and cartilage.
Undersurface of clavicle.
Branches of 5th and 6th cervical.

Rotates humerus inward and lowers it.
Subscapular fossa.
Lesser tubercle of humerus.

Abducts and raises arm.
Supraspinous fossa of scapula.
Greater tubercle of humerus.
Branches of suprascapular.

teres major
tĕ′rēz mā′jor
Inwardly rotates, adducts, and extends arm.
Axillary border of scapula.
Lesser tubercle of humerus.
Branch of lower subscapular.

teres minor
tĕ′rēz mī′nor
Rotates arm outward.
Axillary border of scapula.
Greater tubercle of humerus.
Branch of axillary (circumflex).


Extends forearm.
Lateral epicondyle of humerus.
Olecranon and posterior surface of ulna.
Branch of radial.

biceps brachii
bī′sĕps brā′kē-ī
Flexes arm and forearm and supinates forearm.
(1) Short head from coracoid process. (2) Long head from the supraglenoid tuberosity at the margin of the glenoid cavity.
Bicipital tuberosity of radius.

Flexes forearm.
Lower half of anterior surface of humerus.
Coronoid process of ulna.
Musculocutaneous and radial.

Flexes and supinates forearm.
Supracondylar ridge of humerus.
Styloid process of radius.
Branch of radial.supinator longus

Raises and adducts arm.
Coracoid process of scapula.
Middle of inner border of humerus.

extensor carpi radialis brevis
ĕks-tĕn′sōr kar′pī rā″dē-ā′lĭsbrĕ′vĭs
Extends and abducts wrist.
External condyloid ridge of humerus.
Base of 3rd metacarpal.
Branch of radial.

extensor carpi radialis longus
ĕks-tĕn′sōr kar′pī rā″dē-ā′lĭslŏng′ŭs
Extends and abducts wrist.
External condyloid ridge of humerus.
Base of 2nd metacarpal.
Branch of radial.

extensor carpi ulnaris
ĕks-tĕn′sōr kar′pī ŭl-nā′rĭs
Extends and adducts hand and wrist.
Lateral epicondyle of humerus.
Base of 5th metacarpal.
Branch of radial.

extensor digiti minimi
ĕks-tĕn′sōr dĭj′ĭ-tīmĭn′ĭm-ī
Extends little finger.
External epicondyle of humerus.
Dorsum of 1st phalanx of little finger.
Branch of radial.

extensor digitorum communis
ĕks-tĕn′sōr dĭj-ĭ-tō′rŭmkŏm-mū′nĭs
Extends fingers and wrist.
External epicondyle of humerus.
Second and 3rd phalanges.
Branch of radial.

extensor indicis proprius
ĕks-tĕn′sōr ĭn′dĭ-sĭsprō′prē-ŭs
Extends index finger.
Dorsal surface of ulna and interosseous membrane.
First tendon of extensor digitorum communis.
Branch of radial.

extensor pollicis brevis
ĕks-tĕn′sōr pŏl′ĭ-sĭsbrĕ′vĭs
Extends thumb and abducts 1st metacarpal.
Dorsal surface of radius.
Base of 1st phalanx of thumb.
Branch of radial.

extensor pollicis longus
ĕks-tĕn′sōr pŏl′ĭ-sĭslŏng′ŭs
Extends terminal phalanx of thumb and abducts hand.
Dorsal surface of ulna.
Base of 2nd phalanx of thumb.
Branch of radial.

flexor carpi radialis
flĕks′or kar′pī rā″dē-ā′lĭs
Flexes and abducts wrist.
Medial epicondyle of humerus.
Base of 2nd metacarpal.
Branch of median.

flexor carpi ulnaris
flĕks′or kar′pī ŭl-nā′rĭs
Consists of (1) humeral head and (2) ulnar head.
Flexes and adducts wrist.
(1) Medial epicondyle of humerus. (2) Olecranon process and posterior border of ulna.
Pisiform bone and 5th metacarpal.
Branch of ulnar.

flexor digitorum profundus
flĕks′or dĭj-ĭ-tō′rŭmprō-fŭn′dŭs
Flexes the distal interphalangeal joints of the fingers.
Upper three fourths of shaft of ulna.
Terminal phalanges of fingers.
Branch of ulnar and branch of median.

flexor digitorum sublimis
flĕks′or dĭj-ĭ-tō′rŭmsŭb-lī′mĭsflexor digitorum superficialis

flexor digitorum superficialis
flĕks′or dĭj-ĭ-tō′rŭmsoo″pĕr-fĭsh-ē-ā′lĭs
Consists of three heads: (1) humeral, (2) ulnar, and (3) radial.
Flexes the middle and proximal phalanges, carpal flexion of hand.
(1) Medial epicondyle of humerus. (2) Medial side of coronoid process.(3) Outer border of radius.
Second phalanx of each finger.
Branches of median.flexor digitorum sublimis

flexor pollicis longus
flĕks′or pŏl′ĭ-sĭslŏng′ŭs
Flexes thumb.
Anterior surface of middle third of radius.
Terminal phalanx of thumb.
Branch of median.

palmaris longus
păl-mār′ĭs lŏng′ŭs
Tightens palmar fascia, flexes wrist.
Medial epicondyle of humerus.
Transverse carpal ligament and palmar fascia.
Branch of median.

pronator quadratus
prō-nā′tor kwăd-rā′tŭs
Pronates forearm.
Lower fourth of ulna.
Lower fourth of radius.
Volar interosseous.

pronator teres
prō-nā′tor tĕ′rēz
Consists of (1) humeral head and (2) ulnar head.
Pronates hand.
(1) Medial epicondyle of humerus. (2) Coronoid process of ulna.
Lateral surface of shaft of radius.
Branch of median.

Supinates forearm.
Lateral epicondyle of humerus, oblique line of ulna, elbow joint.
Outer surface of radius.
Branch of radial.

supinator longus
soo″pĭ-nā′tor lŏng′ŭsbrachioradialis

triceps brachii
trī′sĕps brā′kē-ī
Consists of three heads: (1) long, (2) lateral, and (3) medial.
Extends forearm and arm.
(1) Infraglenoid tubercle of scapula. (2) Posterior surface of humerusbelow great tubercle. (3) Humerus below radial groove.
Olecranon process of ulna.
Branches of radial.


abductor digiti minimi manus
ăb-dŭk′tŏr dĭj-ĭ-tīmĭn′ĭ-mī mă′nŭs
Abducts little finger.
Pisiform bone and ligaments.
Inner side of 1st phalanx of little finger.
Ulnar, palmar branch.

abductor pollicis brevis
ăb-dŭk′tor pŏl′ĭ-sĭsbrĕ′vĭs
Abducts thumb.
Ridge of trapezius and transverse carpal ligament.
Outer side of 1st phalanx of thumb.
Branch of median.

abductor pollicis longus
ăb-dŭk′tor pŏl′ĭ-sĭslŏng′ŭs
Abducts and assists in extending thumb.
Posterior surface of radius and ulna.
Outer side of base of 1st metacarpal.
Branch of radial.

adductor pollicis
ăd-dŭk′tor pŏl′ĭ-sĭs
Adducts thumb.
Third metacarpal bone.
Inner side of base of 1st phalanx of thumb.

extensor indicis
ĕks-tĕn′sōr ĭn′dĭ-sĭs
Extends 2nd digit, aids extension of hand.
Posterior surface of ulna and interosseus membrane.
Extensor expansion of 2nd digit.
Posterior interosseus branch of radial nerve (C7-C8).

flexor digiti minimi brevis manus
flĕks′ŏr dĭj-ĭ-tīmĭn′ĭ-mī brĕ′vĭs mă′nŭs
Intrinsic hand muscle, flexes 5th digit.
Hook of hamate bone and flexor retinaculum.
Medial edge of proximal phalanx of 5th digit.
Deep branch of ulnar nerve (C8-T1).

flexor digiti quinti brevis manus
flĕks′or dĭj-ĭ-tī kwĭn′tībrĕ′vĭs mă′nŭs
Flexes 1st phalanx of little finger.
Unciform bone.
First phalanx of little finger.
Branch of ulnar.

flexor pollicis brevis
flĕks′or pŏl′ĭ-sĭsbrĕ′vĭs
Flexes 1st phalanx of thumb.
Transverse carpal ligament, metacarpal bone.
Base of 1st phalanx of thumb.
Branch of median and ulnar.

interossei dorsales manus
ĭn″tĕr-ŏs′ē-īdōr-sā′lēz mă′nŭs
Abducts and adducts fingers.
Sides of metacarpal bones.
First phalanges.
Branch of ulnar.

interossei volares
Adducts index finger, abducts ring and little fingers.
Metacarpal bones laterally.
Ulnar side of index finger, and radial sides of ring and little fingers.
Branch of ulnar.

lumbricales manus
lŭm-brĭ-kā′lēz mă′nŭs
Flexes 1st and extends 2nd and 3rd phalanges.
Tendon of flexor digitorum profundus.
First phalanx and extensor tendon.
Median and ulnar.

opponens digiti minimi
ŏp-pō′nĕns dĭj-ĭ-tīmĭn′ĭ-mī
Intrinsic hand muscle, pulls 5th metacarpal toward thumb to allow 5th digit to oppose thumb.
Hook of hamate bone and flexor retinaculum.
Medial edge of 5th metacarpal.
Ulnar nerve (C8-T1).

opponens digiti quinti
ŏp-pō′nĕns dĭj-ĭ-tīkwĭn′tī
Flexes and adducts little finger.
Unciform bone, transverse carpal ligament.
Fifth metacarpal bone.
Branch of ulnar.

opponens pollicis
ŏp-pō′nĕns pŏl′ĭ-sĭs
Flexes and adducts thumb.
Trapezium and transverse carpal ligament.
First metacarpal bone.

palmaris brevis
păl-mā′rĭs brĕ′vĭs
Wrinkles skin on inner side of hand.
Central portion of palmar aponeurosis and transverse carpal ligament.
Skin of ulnar side of hand.
Branch of ulnar.


adductor brevis
ăd-dŭk′tor brĕ′vĭs
Flexes, adducts, and tends to rotate thigh medially.
Ramus of pubis.
Upper portion of linea aspera of femur.
Branch of obturator.

adductor longus
ăd-dŭk′tor lŏng′ŭs
Adducts, flexes, and tends to rotate thigh medially.
Pubic crest and symphysis.
Middle of linea aspera of femur.
Branch of obturator.

adductor magnus
ăd-dŭk′tor măg′nŭs
Adducts thigh and rotates it outward.
Ramus of ischium and pubis.
Linea aspera of femur and medial condyle.
Branch of sciatic and obturator.

articularis genus
Elevates capsule of knee joint.
Lower quarter of anterior surface of femoral shaft.
Synovial membrane of knee joint.
Branch of femoral.

biceps femoris
bī′sĕps fĕm′ō-rĭs
Flexes knee and rotates it outward.
(1) Short head from linea aspera. (2) Long head from ischial tuberosity.
Head of fibula; lateral condyle of tibia.
(1) Peroneal and (2) tibial portions of sciatic.

gemellus inferior
jĕ-mĕl′ŭs ĭn-fē′rĭ-or
Rotates thigh outward.
Ischial tuberosity.
Medial surface of greater trochanter.

gemellus superior
jĕ-mĕl′ŭs sū-pē′rē-or
Rotates thigh outward.
Spine of ischium.
Medial surface of greater trochanter.
Sacral plexus.

gluteus maximus
gloo′tē-ŭs măk′sē-mŭs
Extends and rotates thigh.
Superior curved iliac line and crest, coccyx, and sacrum.
Fascia lata and femur below greater trochanter.
Inferior gluteal.

gluteus medius
gloo′tē-ŭs mē′dē-ŭs
Abducts and rotates thigh.
Lateral surface of ilium.
Greater trochanter.
Branches of superior gluteal.

gluteus minimus
gloo′tē-ŭs mĭn′ĭ-mŭs
Abducts and extends thigh.
Lateral surface of ilium.
Greater trochanter.
Branch of superior gluteal.

Flexes and adducts leg, adducts thigh.
Symphysis pubis and pubic arch.
Medial surface of shaft of tibia.
Branch of obturator.

Flexes and rotates thigh.
Margin of iliac fossa.
Lesser trochanter.
Branches of femoral.

obturator internus
ŏb′tū-rā″tor ĭn-tĕr′nŭs
Rotates thigh outward.
Pubes, ischium, obturator foramen.
Inner surface of greater trochanter.
Branch of obturator.

Flexes and adducts thigh.
Pubic spine, iliopectineal line.
Pectineal line of femur.
Branch of obturator and femoral.

Abducts and rotates thigh outward.
Margins of anterior sacral foramina and sacrosciatic notch of ilium.
Upper margin of greater trochanter.
Branch of sacral.

psoas major
sō′ăs mā′jor
Flexes thigh, adducts and rotates it medially.
Last thoracic and all of the lumbar vertebrae.
Lesser trochanter of femur.
Lumbar plexus.

psoas minor
sō′ăs mī′nor
Tenses iliac fascia.
Twelfth thoracic and 1st lumbar vertebrae.
Iliac fascia and iliopectineal tuberosity.
Branch of lumbar.

quadratus femoris
kwăd-rā′tŭs fĕm′ō-rĭs
Rotates thigh outward.
Ischial tuberosity.
Intertrochanteric ridge.

quadriceps femoris
kwăd′rĭ-sĕps fĕm′ō-rĭs
Extends leg.
By four heads: rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and vastus intermedius.
Patella and tibial tuberosity.
Branches of femoral.

rectus femoris
rĕk′tŭs fĕm′ō-rĭs
Extends leg and assists flexion of thigh.
Iliac spine, upper margin of acetabulum.
Base of patella.

Flexes and rotates thigh and leg.
Anterior superior iliac spine.
Tibial tuberosity.
Branches of femoral.

Flexes and rotates leg, extends thigh.
Ischial tuberosity.
Medial condyle of tibia.
Tibial portion of sciatic.

Flexes and rotates leg, extends thigh.
Ischial tuberosity.
Shaft of tibia below internal tuberosity.
Tibial portion of sciatic.

tensor fasciae latae
tĕn′sōr făsh′ē-ēlā′tē
Flexes and rotates thigh.
Iliac crest, iliac spine, fascia lata.
Iliotibial band of fascia lata.
Branch of superior gluteal.

vastus intermedius
văs′tŭs ĭn″tĕr-mē′dē-ŭs
Upper part of anterior surface of shaft of femur.
Common tendon of quadriceps femoris.
Branches of femoral.

vastus lateralis
văs′tŭs lăt″ĕr-ā′lĭs
Extends knee.
Linea aspera to greater trochanter.
Common tendon of quadriceps femoris.
Branches of femoral.

vastus medialis
văs′tŭs mē-dĭ-ā′lĭs
Extends leg, draws patella in.
Linea aspera of femur.
Common tendon of quadriceps femoris.
Branches of femoral.


extensor digitorum longus
ĕks-tĕn′sōr dĭj-ĭ-tō′rŭmlŏng′ŭs
Extends toes, dorsiflexes foot.
External tuberosity of tibia; body of fibula.
Second and 3rd phalanges of toes.
Branches of peroneal.

extensor hallucis longus
ĕks-tĕn′sōr hăl-oo′sĭslŏng′ŭs
Extends great toe, flexes foot.
Front of fibula and interosseous membrane.
Terminal phalanx of great toe.
Branch of peroneal.

fibularis tertius
fĭb-ū-lăr′ĭs tĕr′shŭs
Dorsiflexes ankle, aids eversion of foot.
Lower anterior surface of fibula and interosseus membrane.
Dorsal surface of base of 5th metatarsal.
Deep branch of fibular nerve (L5-S1).

flexor digitorum longus
flĕks′or dĭj-ĭ-tō′rŭmlŏng′ŭs
Flexes the toes.
Posterior surface of tibia.
Terminal phalanges of lesser toes.
Branch of tibial.

flexor hallucis longus
flĕks′or hăl-oo′sĭs lŏng′ŭs
Flexes phalanges, primarily the distal phalanges, and plantar flexes the foot.
Lower portion of shaft of fibula.
Distal phalanx of great toe.
Posterior tibial.

Plantar flexes foot and flexes knee.
External and internal femoral condyles.
By tendo calcaneus into os calcis.
Branches of tibial.

peroneus brevis
pĕr-ō-nē′ŭs brĕ′vĭs
Extends and abducts foot.
Midportion of shaft of fibula.
Base of 5th metatarsal bone.
Branch of peroneal.

peroneus longus
pĕr-ō-nē′ŭs lŏng′ŭs
Extends, abducts, and everts foot.
Upper fibula and external condyle of tibia.
By tendon to internal cuneiform and 1st metatarsal bone.
Branch of peroneal.

peroneus tertius
pĕr-ō-nē′ŭs tĕr′shē-ŭs
Flexes foot.
Lower part of fibula.
Fifth metatarsal bone.
Branch of peroneal.

Extends foot.
External supracondyloid ridge of femur.
Inner border of tendo calcaneus.
Branch of tibial.

Flexes leg and rotates it inward.
External condyle of femur.
Posterior surface of tibia.
Branch of tibial.

Plantar flexes foot.
Upper shaft of fibula, oblique line of tibia.
By tendo calcaneus to os calcis.

tibialis anterior
tĭb″ē-ā′lĭs ăn-tē′rĭ-or
Dorsiflexes foot and increases the arch in the takeoff of walking.
Upper tibia, interosseus membrane, and intermuscular septum.
Internal cuneiform and 1st metatarsal.
Branch of peroneal.

tibialis posterior
tĭb″ē-ā′lĭs pŏs-tē′rē-or
Plantar flexes foot.
Shaft of fibula and tibia.
Tuberosity of scaphoid, 2nd to 4th metatarsal, internal cuneiform.
Branch of tibial.


abductor digiti minimi pedis
ăb-dŭk′tor dĭj-ĭ-tīmīn′ĭ-mī pē′dĭs
Abducts little toe.
Outer tuberosity of calcaneus, plantar fascia, and intermuscular septum.
External side of 1st phalanx of little toe.
Lateral plantar.

abductor hallucis
ăb-dŭk′tor hăl-oo′sĭs
Abducts great toe.
Inner tuberosity of os calcis, plantar fascia.
Inner side, 1st phalanx of great toe.
Medial plantar.

adductor hallucis
ăd-dŭk′tor hăl-oo′sĭs
Adducts great toe.
Tarsal terminations of the three middle metatarsal bones.
Lateral side of base of 1st phalanx of great toe.
Branch of lateral plantar.

extensor digitorum brevis
ĕks-tĕn′sōr dĭj-ĭ-tō′rŭmbrĕ′vĭs
Extends toes.
Dorsal surface of os calcis.
To 1st phalanx of great toe and the tendons of extensor digitorumlongus.
Branch of peroneal.

flexor accessorius
flĕks′or ăk-sĕ-sō′rē-ŭsquadratus plantae

flexor digiti minimi brevis pedis
flĕks′ŏr dĭj-ĭ-tīmĭn′ĭ-mī brĕ′vĭs pĕ′dĭs
Intrinsic foot muscle, flexes 5th digit.
Base of 5th metatarsal.
Base of proximal phalanx of 5th digit of foot.
Lateral plantar branch of tibial nerve (S2-S3).

flexor digiti quinti brevis pedis
flĕks′or dĭj-ĭ-tī kwĭn′tībrĕ′vĭs pē′dĭs
Flexes the little toe.
Base of metatarsal of little toe and sheath of peroneus longus.
Outer side of base of 1st phalanx of little toe.
External plantar.

flexor digitorum brevis
flĕks′ŏr dĭj-ĭ-tōr′ŭmbrĕ′vĭs
Flexes toe.
Os calcis and plantar fascia.
Second phalanges of lesser toes.
Internal plantar.

flexor hallucis brevis
flĕks′ŏr hăl-oo′sĭsbrĕ′vĭs
Intrinsic foot muscle, flexes 1st digit.
Plantar surfaces of cuboid and lateral cuneiform bones.
Both sides of base of proximal phalanx of 1st digit.
Medial plantar branch of tibial nerve (S2-S3).

flexor hallucis longus
flĕks′ŏr hăl-oo′sĭslŏng′ŭs
Flexes 1st digit of foot, aids plantar flexion of foot, supports medial arch of foot.
Lower posterior surface of fibula and interosseus membrane.
Base of distal phalanx of 1st digit.
Tibial nerve (S2-S3).

interossei dorsales pedis
ĭn″tĕr-ŏs′ē-īdōr-sā′lēz pē′dĭs
Adducts 2nd toe, abducts 2nd, 3rd, and 4th toes.
Shafts of adjacent metatarsal bones.
First phalanges of lesser toes.
External plantar.

interossei plantares
Adducts three outer toes.
Third, 4th, and 5th metatarsal bones.
First phalanx of corresponding toe.
External plantar.

lumbricales pedis
lŭm-brĭ-kā′lēz pē′dĭs
Flexes the 1st and extends the 2nd and 3rd phalanges.
Tendons of flexor digitorum longus.
First phalanx and extensor tendon.
External and internal plantar.

quadratus plantae
kwăd-rā′tŭs plăn′tē
Assists flexion of toes.
Inferior surface of os calcis by two heads from outer and inner borders.
Tendons of flexor digitorum longus.
Branch of lateral plantar.flexor accessorius


arrectores pilorum
ă″rĕk-tō′rĕz pĭl-ō′rŭm
Elevates hairs of skin.
Papillary layer of skin.
Hair follicles.


Muscle Indicating its Body Area
MuscleBody Area
abductor digiti minimi manushand
abductor digiti minimi pedisfoot
abductor hallucisfoot
abductor pollicis brevishand
abductor pollicis longushand
adductor breviship and thigh
adductor hallucisfoot
adductor longuship and thigh
adductor magnuship and thigh
adductor pollicishand
anconeusarm and forearm
arrectores pilorumgeneral
articularis genuship and thigh
auricularis anteriorhead and face
auricularis posteriorhead and face
auricularis superiorhead and face
biceps brachiiarm and forearm
biceps femoriship and thigh
brachialisarm and forearm
brachioradialisarm and forearm
buccinatorhead and face
ciliarishead and face
constrictor pharyngis inferiorneck
constrictor pharyngis mediusneck
constrictor pharyngis superiorneck
coracobrachialisarm and forearm
corrugator cutis aniperineum
corrugator superciliihead and face
cricoarytenoideus lateralislarynx
cricoarytenoideus posteriorlarynx
depressor anguli orishead and face
depressor labii inferiorishead and face
depressor septi nasihead and face
depressor urethraeperineum
dilator naris anteriorhead and face
dilator naris posteriorhead and face
extensor carpi radialis brevisarm and forearm
extensor carpi radialis longusarm and forearm
extensor carpi ulnarisarm and forearm
extensor digiti minimiarm and forearm
extensor digitorum brevisfoot
extensor digitorum communisarm and forearm
extensor digitorum longusleg
extensor hallucis longusleg
extensor indicishand
extensor indicis propriusarm and forearm
extensor pollicis brevisarm and forearm
extensor pollicis longusarm and forearm
fibularis tertiusfoot
flexor accessoriusfoot
flexor carpi radialisarm and forearm
flexor carpi ulnarisarm and forearm
flexor digiti minimi brevis manushand
flexor digiti minimi brevis pedisfoot
flexor digiti quinti brevis manushand
flexor digitorum brevisfoot
flexor digitorum longusleg
flexor digitorum profundusarm and forearm
flexor digitorum sublimisarm and forearm
flexor digitorum superficialisarm and forearm
flexor hallucis brevisfoot
flexor hallucis longusleg
flexor pollicis brevishand
flexor pollicis longusarm and forearm
gemellus inferiorhip and thigh
gemellus superiorhip and thigh
gluteus maximuship and thigh
gluteus mediuship and thigh
gluteus minimuship and thigh
graciliship and thigh
helicus major and minorear
iliacuship and thigh
iliocostalis cervicisback
iliocostalis lumborumback
iliocostalis thoracisback
intercostalis externusthorax
intercostalis internusthorax
interossei dorsales manushand
interossei dorsales pedisfoot
interossei plantaresfoot
interossei volareshand
latissimus dorsiback
levator anguli orishead and face
levator aniperineum
levator labii superiorishead and face
levator labii superioris alaeque nasihead and face
levator palpebrae superiorishead and face
levator scapulaeback
levator veli palatinineck
levatores costarumthorax
longissimus capitusback
longissimus cervicisback
longissimus thoracisback
longus capitisneck
lumbricales manushand
lumbricales pedisfoot
masseterhead and face
mentalishead and face
nasalishead and face
obliquus auriculaeear
obliquus capitis inferiorback
obliquus capitis superiorback
obliquus externus abdominisabdomen
obliquus inferior oculihead and face
obliquus internus abdominisabdomen
obliquus superior oculihead and face
obturator internuship and thigh
occipitofrontalishead and face
opponens digiti minimihand
opponens digiti quintihand
opponens pollicishand
orbicularis oculihead and face
orbicularis orishead and face
palmaris brevishand
palmaris longusarm and forearm
pectineuship and thigh
pectoralis majorshoulder
pectoralis minorshoulder
peroneus brevisleg
peroneus longusleg
peroneus tertiusleg
piriformiship and thigh
procerushead and face
pronator quadratusarm and forearm
pronator teresarm and forearm
psoas majorhip and thigh
psoas minorhip and thigh
pterygoideus lateralishead and face
pterygoideus medialishead and face
quadratus femoriship and thigh
quadratus lumborumabdomen
quadratus plantaefoot
quadriceps femoriship and thigh
rectus abdominisabdomen
rectus capitis anteriorneck
rectus capitis lateralisneck
rectus capitis posterior majorback
rectus capitis posterior minorback
rectus externus or lateralishead and face
rectus femoriship and thigh
rectus inferiorhead and face
rectus internus or medialishead and face
rectus superiorhead and face
rhomboideus majorback
rhomboideus minorback
risoriushead and face
sartoriuship and thigh
scalenus anteriorneck
scalenus mediusneck
scalenus posteriorneck
semimembranosuship and thigh
semispinalis capitisback
semispinalis cervicisback
semispinalis thoracisback
semitendinosuship and thigh
serratus anteriorshoulder
serratus posterior inferiorback
serratus posterior superiorback
sphincter ani externusperineum
sphincter ani internusperineum
sphincter urethrae membranaceaeperineum
sphincter vesicaeperineum
spinalis capitisback
spinalis cervicisback
spinalis thoracisback
splenius capitisback
splenius cervicisback
supinatorarm and forearm
suspensorius duodeniback
temporalishead and face
tensor fasciae lataehip and thigh
tensor tympaniear
tensor veli palatinineck
teres majorshoulder
teres minorshoulder
tibialis anteriorleg
tibialis posteriorleg
transversus abdominisabdomen
transversus auriculaeear
transversus perinei profundusperineum
transversus perinei superficialisperineum
transversus thoracisthorax
triceps brachiiarm and forearm
vastus intermediuship and thigh
vastus lateraliship and thigh
vastus medialiship and thigh
zygomaticus majorhead and face
zygomaticus minorhead and face

Principal Joints


Atlas and axis
Atlas and occipital
GlidingCapsular; superior and inferior acromioclavicular; articular disk; coracoclavicular (trapezoid and conoid)
Pivot (trochoid)Capsular; anterior and posterior atlantoaxial; transverse
CondyloidCapsular; anterior and posterior atlanto-occipital membrane; lateral; tectorial membrane; alar; apical odontoid
GlidingCapsular; dorsal calcaneocuboid; bifurcated; long plantar; plantarcalcaneocuboid
GlidingDorsal; volar; interosseous


Femur and tibia
Hip bone and femur
Humerus and ulnaIntercarpal
Hinge (ginglymus)Capsular; patellar; oblique and arcuate popliteal; tibial and fibularcollateral; anterior and posterior cruciate; medial and lateral menisci; transverse; coronary
Ball and socket (enarthrosis)Capsular; iliofemoral; pubocapsular; ischiofemoral; round ligamentof femur; transverse acetabular
Hinge (ginglymus)Capsular; ulnar and radial collateral

Carpal, proximal
GlidingDorsal; volar; interosseous
Carpal, distal
GlidingDorsal; volar; interosseous
Carpal bones, two rows with each other
Volar; dorsal; collateral
Hinge (ginglymus)Collateral; volar in fingers and plantar in toes


Mandible and temporal
Pubic bones
Radioulnar, distal
Radioulnar, proximal
Ribs, heads of
Ribs, tubercles and necks of
CondyloidCapsular; temporomandibular; sphenomandibular; articular disk; stylomandibular
CondyloidVolar; collateral
CondyloidPlantar; collateral
SymphysisSuperior and arcuate pubic; interpubic fibrocartilaginous layer
Pivot (trochoid)Ulnar collateral; articular disk
Pivot (trochoid)Annular
GlidingCapsular; radiate; intra-articular
GlidingCapsular; anterior and posterior costotransverse; neck of rib; tubercle of rib


Scapula and humerus
SymphysisAnterior, posterior, and lateral sacrococcygeal; interposed fibrocartilaginous; interarticular
Gliding (slight)Anterior and posterior sacroiliac; interosseous
Ball and socket (enarthrosis)Capsular; coracohumeral; glenohumeral; transverse humeral; glenoidof humerus
Double glidingCapsular; anterior and posterior sternoclavicular; inter- and costoclavicular; articular disk
GlidingCapsular; radiate and intra-articular sternocostal; costoxiphoid


Talus and calcaneus
Talus and navicular
Tibia-fibula and talus (ankle)
Tibiofibular, proximal
Tibiofibular, distal
GlidingCapsular; anterior, posterior, lateral, medial, and interosseous; talocalcaneal
GlidingCapsular; dorsal talonavicular
GlidingDorsal; plantar; interosseous
Hinge (ginglymus)Capsular; deltoid; anterior and posterior talofibular; calcaneofibular
GlidingCapsular; anterior; posterior
SyndesmosisAnterior and posterior tibiofibular; inferior transverse; interosseous


Vertebral arches
Vertebral bodies
Radius-ulna and carpals (wrist)
GlidingCapsular; flaval; supraspinal; nuchal; interspinal; intertransverse
SymphysisAnterior and posterior longitudinal; intervertebral fibrocartilaginous
CondyloidVolar and dorsal radiocarpal; ulnar and radial collateral


Abducent - Auriculotemporal

Lateral rectus muscle of eye
Medulla oblongata and spinal cord
Sternomastoid and trapezius muscles
Alveolar, inferior
Mandibular div. of trigeminal
Teeth of lower jaw, mylohyoid muscle, and skin of chin
Alveolar, superior
Maxillary div. of trigeminal
Upper teeth and gums SEE: Vestibulocochlear

Auricular, great
Second and third cervical through cervical plexus
Side of neck; skin of ear and cheek
Auricular, posterior
Posterior auricular muscle
Mandibular div. of trigeminal
Side of scalp

6th cranial n.
N. abducensMotor

11th cranial n.
N. accessoriusMotor
N. alveolaris inferiorSensory and motor
Nn. alveolares superioresSensory

8th cranial n.
N. auricularis magnusSensory
N. auricularis posteriorMotor
N. auriculotemporalisSensory

Buccal - Circumflex

Mandibular div. of trigeminal
Skin and mucous membrane of cheek
Second and third cervical through cervical plexus
Skin of front of neck
Chorda tympani
Sublingual and submaxillary glands; sense of taste
Ciliary, long
Cornea, iris, and ciliary body
Ciliary, short
Ciliary ganglion
Cornea, iris, and ciliary body
Posterior cord of brachial plexus
Deltoid, teres minor, shoulder joint, and overlying skin
N. buccalisSensory

Cervical n., superficial
Cutaneous cervical n.; transverse n. of neck
N. transversus colliSensory
Motor and sensory
Nn. ciliares longiSensory and motor
Nn. ciliares brevesSensory and motor

N. axillarisMotor and sensory

Coccygeal - Cutaneous

Spinal cord
Coccygeus muscle and skin over coccyx
Cutaneous, lateral, of forearm
Musculocutaneous nerve
Side of forearm
Cutaneous, medial, of forearm
Brachial plexus
Front and medial forearm
Cutaneous, posterior, of forearm
Radial nerve
Back of forearm
Cutaneous, lateral inferior, of arm
Radial nerve
Lateral side of arm
Cutaneous, lateral superior, of arm
Axillary nerve
Back of arm
Cutaneous, medial, of arm
Brachial plexus
Middle and back of arm
Cutaneous, posterior, of arm
Radial nerve in axilla
Back of arm
Cutaneous, intermediate dorsal
Superficial peroneal nerve
Front of lower leg; dorsum of foot; toes
N. coccygeusMotor and sensory
N. cochlearisSense of hearing
N. cutaneus antebrachii medialisGeneral sensory
N. cutaneus antebrachii medialisGeneral sensory
N. cutaneus antebrachii posteriorGeneral sensory
N. cutaneus brachii lateralis inferiorGeneral sensory
N. cutaneus brachii lateralis superiorGeneral sensory
N. cutaneus brachii medialisGeneral sensory
N. cutaneus brachii posteriorGeneral sensory
N. cutaneus dorsalis intermediusGeneral sensory

Cutaneous, lateral - Facial

Cutaneous, lateral dorsal
Sural nerve
Lateral side of foot
Cutaneous, medial dorsal
Superficial peroneal nerve
Medial side of foot; big toe; second and third toes
Cutaneous, lateral femoral
Lumbar plexus
Lateral and front thigh
Cutaneous, posterior femoral
Sacral plexus
Buttocks; external genitals; back of thigh and calf
Cutaneous, lateral, of calf
Common fibular nerve
Lateral side of back of leg
Cutaneous, medial, of calf
Tibial nerve
Back of leg
Stylohyoid and posterior belly of digastric muscle
Muscles of expression; sense of taste
N. cutaneus dorsalis lateralisGeneral sensory
N. cutaneus dorsalis medialisGeneral sensory
N. cutaneus femoralis lateralisGeneral sensory
N. cutaneus femoralis posteriorGeneral sensory
N. cutaneus surae lateralisGeneral sensory
N. cutaneus surae medialisGeneral sensory

7th cranial n.
N. facialisMotor

Femoral - Gluteal

2nd, 3rd, and 4th lumbar
Muscles and skin of thigh
Ophthalmic div. of trigeminal
Skin of forehead
1st and 2nd lumbar
Cremaster muscle and skin of groin and upper part of thigh
Medulla oblongata
Muscles and mucous membrane of pharynx, fauces, and posteriorthird of tongue; sense of taste
Gluteal, inferior
5th lumbar and 1st and 2nd sacral
Gluteus maximus
Gluteal, superior
4th and 5th lumbar and 1st sacral
Gluteus medius and minimus, tensor fasciae femoris

Anterior crural n.
N. femoralisMotor and sensory
N. frontalisSensory

Genitocrural n.
N. genitofemoralisSensory and motor

9th cranial n.
N. glossopharyngeusMotor and sensory
N. gluteus inferiorMotor
N. gluteus superiorMotor

Hypogastric - Infratrochlear

Muscles and skin of abdominal wall
Hypoglossal nucleus in medulla oblongata
Intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of tongue
1st lumbar
Muscles and skin of hypogastrium
1st lumbar
Muscles of abdominal wall, skin of upper thigh, skin of rootof penis and scrotum (in male), and skin of mons pubis and labium majus (infemale)
Maxillary div. of trigeminal
Skin of cheek and all upper teeth except molars
Skin of lower eyelid and root of nose, conjunctiva, and lacrimalsac and caruncle
N. hypogastricusMotor and sensory

12th cranial n.
N. hypoglossusMotor
N. iliohypogastricusSensory and motor
N. ilioinguinalisSensory and motor
N. infraorbitalisSensory
N. infratrochlearisSensory

Intercostal - Lingual

Muscles and skin of back, thorax, and upper abdomen
2nd intercostal
Skin of axilla and medial side of arm
Deep flexor and pronator muscles of forearm
Interosseous, posterior
Musculospiral (Radial)
Muscles and skin of back of forearm and wrist
Ophthalmic div. of trigeminal
Lacrimal gland, conjunctiva, and skin of upper eyelid
Laryngeal, inferior
Branch of recurrent laryngeal
Muscles of larynx except cricothyroid
Laryngeal, recurrent
Nucleus ambiguus in the hindbrain via vagus nerve (CN X)
All intrinsic muscles of larynx except cricothyroid.
Laryngeal, superior
Mucous membrane of larynx; arytenoid and cricothyroid muscles
Mandibular div. of trigeminal
Mucous membrane of anterior two thirds of tongue and floor andouter wall of mouth
Nn. intercostalesSensory and motor
Nn. intercostobrachialesSensory

Interosseous, anterior
Volar interosseous n.
N. interosseus anteriorMotor
N. interosseus posteriorMotor and sensory
N. lacrimalisSensory
N. laryngeus inferiorMotor
N. laryngeus recurrensMotor
N. laryngeus superiorMotor and sensory
N. lingualisSensory

Lumbar - Maxillary

Spinal cord
Loins and front of lower abdomen and thigh to help in forminglumbar and sacral plexuses
Teeth, gums, and skin of lower jaw and cheek; muscles of mastication; mucous membrane of anterior two thirds of tongue
Mandibular div. of trigeminal
Masseter muscle
Nasal pharynx, palate, teeth of upper jaw and skin of cheek
Nn. lumbalesMotor and sensory
N. mandibularisMotor and sensory
N. massetericusMotor
N. maxillarisSensory

Median - Nasopalatine

Internal and external cords of brachial plexus
Pronators and flexors of forearm, two external lumbricales,thenar muscles, skin of palm and first four fingers
Inferior alveolar
Skin and mucous membrane of lower lip and chin
External cord of brachial plexus
Flexors of upper arm and skin of external aspect of forearm
Inferior alveolar
Mylohyoid muscle and anterior belly of digastric muscle
Ophthalmic div. of trigeminal
Ciliary ganglion, iris, conjunctiva, ethmoid cells, mucous membraneand skin of nose
Meckel's ganglion (Sphenopalatine ganglion)
Mucous membrane of nose and palate
N. medianusMotor and sensory
N. mentalisSensory
N. musculocutaneousMotor and sensory
N. mylohyoideusMotor

Nasociliary n.
N. nasociliarisSensory
N. nasopalatinusSensory

Obturator - Olfactory

2nd, 3rd, and 4th lumbar through lumbar plexus
Adductors of thigh, hip, and knee joints; skin of inner aspectof thigh
Occipital, greater
2nd cervical
Muscles of back of neck; skin over occiput
Occipital, lesser
2nd and 3rd cervical
Skin behind ear and on back of scalp
Occipital, third
3rd cervical
Skin of back of head and nape of neck
Floor of aqueduct of Sylvius
All ocular muscles except lateral rectus and superior oblique
Olfactory lobe
Olfactory receptors
N. obturatoriusMotor and sensory
N. occipitalis majorMotor and sensory
N. occipitalis minorSensory
N. occipitalis tertiusSensory

3rd cranial n.
N. oculomotoriusMotor

1st cranial n.
Nn. olfactoriiSpecial sense of smell

Ophthalmic - Pterygoid

1st div. of trigeminal
Lacrimal gland, conjunctiva, skin of forehead, skin and mucousmembrane of nose
Corpora quadrigemina
Palatine, anterior, middle, and posterior
Meckel's ganglion
Mucous membrane of palate; autonomic to glands
Brachial plexus
Pectoralis minor and major muscles
Muscles and skin of perineum
Peroneal, common
Extensor muscles of lower leg and foot and overlying skin
3rd, 4th, and 5th cervical
Pneumogastric SEE: Vagus n.

Mandibular div. of trigeminal
Lateral and medial pterygoid muscles
Meckel's ganglion (sphenopalatine ganglion)
N. ophthalmicusSensory

2nd cranial n.
N. opticusSpecial sense of sight
Nn. palatiniSensory and motor
N. pectoralis lateralis, N. pectoralis medialisMotor
N. perinealesMotor and sensory
N. peroneus communisMotor and sensory
N. phrenicusMotor and sensory
N. pterygoideus lateralis medialisMotor

Pterygoid canal, n. of
Vidian n.
N. canalis pterygoideiSensory

Pterygopalatine - Saphenous

Maxillary div. of trigeminal
Meckel's ganglion
2nd, 3rd, and 4th sacral
Skin and muscles of perineum and genitalia
Brachial plexus
Skin of back of entire arm and hand; extensor muscles of entirearm and hand
Spinal cord
Muscles and skin of loins and lower extremities
Saphenous, external or short SEE: Sural n.
N. pterygopalatiniSensory
N. pudendusSensory

musculospiral n.
N. radialisMotor and sensory
Nn. sacralesMotor and sensory

Saphenous - Subscapular

Saphenous, internal or long
Skin of inner aspect of knee, leg, ankle, and dorsum of foot
Sacral plexus
Muscles of calf and back of thigh; skin of lower calf and uppersurface of foot
Spinal accessory SEE: Accessory n. (11th cranial n.)

Stapedius muscle
Stylohyoid muscle
Posterior div. of 1st cervical
Complexus oblique and rectus muscles of back of neck
Posterior cord of brachial plexus
Teres major and subscapularis muscles
N. saphenusSensory

Great sciatic n.
N. ischiadicusMotor and sensory
N. stapediusMotor
N. suboccipitalisMotor
N. subscapularisMotor

Supraclavicular - Supratrochlear

3rd and 4th cervical
Skin of fossa below collarbone
3rd and 4th cervical
Skin of shoulder
3rd and 4th cervical
Skin over upper part of thorax
Forehead, upper eyelid, scalp, and frontal sinus
5th and 6th cervical
Supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles and the shoulder joint
Skin of upper eyelid and root of nose

Supraclavicular, intermediate
Supraclavicular n., middle; supraclavicular n.
Nn. supraclaviculares intermediiSensory

Supraclavicular, lateral
Supraclavicular n., posterior; supra-acromial n.
Nn. supraclaviculares lateralesSensory

Supraclavicular, medial
Supraclavicular n., anterior; suprasternal n.
Nn. supraclaviculares medialesSensory
N. supraorbitalisSensory
N. suprascapularisMotor
N. supratrochlearisSensory

Sural - Typanic

Common peroneal and tibial n.'s
Skin of calf and medial side of foot to great toe
Temporal, deep
Mandibular div. of trigeminal
Temporal muscle
Spinal cord
Muscles and skin of thorax
5th, 6th, and 7th cervical
Serratus anterior muscle
C6-C8 nerve fibers via brachial plexus
Latissimus dorsi
Flexor muscles of back of knee joint and calf; skin of lowerleg
Midbrain and pons
Skin of face, tongue, teeth; muscles of mastication
Floor of aqueduct of Sylvius
Superior oblique muscle of eye
Tympanum, eustachian tube, and structures of middle ear
N. suralisSensory
Nn. temporales profundiMotor
Nn. thoraciciMotor and sensory

Thoracic, long
Posterior thoracic n.; external respiratory n. of Bell
N. thoracicus longusMotor
N. tibialisMotor and sensory

5th cranial n.; trifacial n.
N. trigeminusMotor and sensory

4th cranial n.; pathetic n.
N. trochlearisMotor

Jacobson's n.
N. tympanicusSensory

Ulnar - Zygomatic

Medial cord of brachial plexus
Muscles and skin of forearm and hand
Medulla oblongata
Pharynx, larynx, heart, lungs, stomach and other abdominal viscera
Ganglion of Scarpa and ganglion of Corti
Cochlea, semicircular canals, utricle, and saccule
Maxillary div. of trigeminal
Skin of temple and cheekbone
N. ulnarisMotor and sensory

10th cranial n.; pneumogastric n.
N. vagusMotor and sensory

8th cranial n.; acoustic n.; auditory n.
N. vestibulocochlearisSense of hearing and equilibrium
N. zygomaticusSensory

Nerve Plexuses

Semilunar, lumbar ganglia, renal and solar plexuses.
Sides and front of aorta.
Inferior mesenteric, spermatic and hypogastric plexus. Filamentsto inferior vena cava.
Thoracic ganglia of sympathetic nerve, cardiac plexus.
Surrounding the thoracic aorta.
Solar plexus, aorta.
Anterior branches of 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th cervical, and greater partof 1st thoracic nerves.
Lower part of neck to axilla.
Sixteen branches of suprascapular, subscapular, rhomboid, median,ulnar, musculospiral, posterior thoracic, musculothoracic, circumflex, musculocutaneousnerves.
Great or Deep
Cardiac nerves of cervical ganglion of sympathetic and vagus.
In front of bifurcation of trachea.
Pulmonary, coronary and cardiac plexuses.
Superficial or Anterior
Left superior cardiac nerve, branch of vagus, and filaments of deepcardiac plexus.
Beneath arch of aorta. Front of right pulmonary artery.
Coronary and pulmonary plexuses.
Pharyngeal plexus, superior cardiac nerve, and superior cervical ganglion.
Around external carotid artery.
External carotid artery and its branches.
Postganglionic sympathetic fibers.
Surrounding internal carotid artery.
Tympanic plexus, sphenopalatine ganglion, abducens and oculomotornerves, the cerebral vessels, and the ciliary ganglion.
3rd to 6th cranial nerves and ophthalmic ganglion.
Cavernous sinus.
Wall of internal carotid artery.
Solar plexus, branches from lesser splanchnic and vagus nerves.
Behind stomach, in front of aorta at level of origin of celiac artery.
Coronary, hepatic, pyloric, gastroduodenal, gastroepiploic,and splenic plexuses. solar plexus
Anterior branches of first four cervical nerves.
Beneath sternocleidomastoid muscle opposite first four cervicalvertebrae.
Skin and muscles of neck; phrenic nerve to diaphragm.
Fourth and 5th sacral and the coccygeal nerves.
Dorsal surface of coccyx and caudal end of sacrum.
Anococcygeal nerves.
Hepatic plexus.
At gallbladder.
Vagus nerve, thoracic sympathetic ganglia.
Around the esophagus.
Celiac plexus and continuations of esophageal plexuses.
Gastric artery.
Pelvic and inferior mesenteric plexuses.
Rectum and sides of rectum.
Celiac plexus, left vagus, right phrenic.
Accompanies hepatic artery.
Aortic plexus and lumbar ganglia.
Promontory of sacrum.
Pelvic plexus.
Anterior branches of first four lumbar nerves.
Psoas muscle.
Iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal, genitocrural, external cutaneous, obturator, accessory, and anterior crural nerves.
Superior mesenteric plexus (controls secretions of the bowels).
Submucosa of alimentary tube.
Mucosal glands and smooth muscle. submucosal plexus
Celiac plexus and left side of aortic plexus.
Surrounding the inferior and superior mesenteric arteries.
Descending colon, sigmoid, rectum, intestines.
Sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves.
Between circular and longitudinal smooth muscle layers of alimentary tube.
Smooth muscle of alimentary tube; controls peristalsis. Auerbach's plexus
Internal carotid plexus.
Around ophthalmic artery and optic nerve.
Optic region.
Splenic plexus.
Near pancreas.
Filaments to pancreas.
Hepatic plexus.
Near head of pancreas.
Filaments to pancreas and duodenum.
Hypogastric plexus, 2nd to 4th sacral nerves, 1st and 2nd sacral ganglia (pelvic brain).
Side of rectum and bladder.
Viscera of pelvis, pelvic plexus.
Cervical plexus, semilunar ganglia.
Accompanies phrenic artery to diaphragm.
Diaphragm and suprarenal capsules.
Hypogastric plexus.
Vesical arteries.
Anterior and posterior pulmonary branches of vagus and sympathetic nerves.
Root of lungs, front and back.
Root of lungs.
Hepatic plexus.
Near pylorus.
Filaments to pylorus.
Solar and aortic plexuses and semilunar ganglia.
Renal artery.
Kidneys, posterior vena cava, spermatic plexus.
Anterior branch of 4th and 5th lumbar and 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th sacral nerves.
Front of sacrum on piriformis muscle.
Muscular, pudic, superior gluteal, great and small sciatic nerves.
Splanchnics and right vagus.
Back of stomach.
Semilunar ganglia, suprarenal, renal, spermatic, celiac, superior mesenteric, and aortic plexuses. Called abdominal brain. celiac plexus
Aortic plexus.
Accompanies spermatic vessels to testes or ovaries.
Testes or ovaries.
Celiac plexus, left semilunar ganglion, right vagus nerve.
Accompanies splenic artery.
Spleen, pancreatic plexus, left gastroepiploic plexus.
Diaphragmatic, solar, and renal plexuses.
Around suprarenal capsules.
Filaments to medulla of suprarenal capsules.
Middle cervical ganglion.
Around external carotid and inferior thyroid arteries.
Larynx, pharynx, thyroid gland.
Superior laryngeal and cardiac nerves.
Around the thyroid gland.
Thyroid region.
Pelvic plexus.
Accompanies uterine arteries.
Cervix and lower part of uterus.
Pelvic plexus.
Vaginal walls.
First part thoracic ganglion, upper cervical nerves.
Surrounding basilar and vertebral arteries.
Vertebral and cerebellar regions.
Pelvic plexus.
Accompanies vesical arteries.
Vesicula seminalis, vas deferens.

Cranial Nerves

No.NameNomina Anatomica TermOriginDistribution and Function
1stOlfactoryNn. olfactoriiOlfactory mucosa to olfactory bulbOlfactory receptors, sensory for smell
2ndOpticN. opticusRetina to optic chiasmaRods and cones of the retina, sensory for sight
3rdOculomotorN. oculomotoriusMidbrainMotor and muscle sense for 4 extrinsic muscles of the eyeball (superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, and inferior oblique) and levator palpebrae superioris of the eyelid
Motor to ciliary muscle that encircles lens; contracts for near vision
Motor (parasympathetic) to sphincter smooth muscle fibers of the iris; constricts the pupil
4thTrochlearN. trochlearisMidbrainMotor and muscle sense for the superior oblique, an extrinsic muscle of the eyeball
5thTrigeminalN. trigeminusPonsOphthalamic branch - sensory for the skin of the upper face and anterior scalp
Maxillary branch - sensory for the upper teeth and lip, palate, nasal mucosa and pharyngeal mucosa
Mandibular branch - sensory for lower teeth and lower face; somatic sensory for the anterior two-thirds of the tongue; motor and muscle sense for chewing muscles
6thAbducentN. abducensPonsMotor and muscle sense for the lateral rectus, an extrinsic muscle of the eyeball
7th FacialN. facialisPonsSensory for taste for the anterior two-thirds of tongue
Motorand muscle sense for the muscles of facial expression
Motor (parasympathetic) to the sublingual and submandibular salivary glands
Motor (parasympathetic) to the lacrimal glands
8thAuditory (Acoustic)N. vestibulocochlearisCochlea to medulla; Semicircular canals and vestibule to pons and cerebellumCochlear branch - sensory for the hair cells of the organ of Corti, for hearing
Vestibular branch - sensory for static equilibrium (hair cells of the utricle and saccule) and for equilibrium of motion (hair cells of the semicircular canals)
9thGlossopharyngealN. glossopharyngeusMedulla oblongataSensory for taste and somatic senses for posterior one-third of the tongue
Sensory for carotid sinus (pressoreceptors) and carotid body (chemoreceptors) as part of cardiac, respiratory, and blood pressure reflexes
Motor (parasympathetic) to the parotid salivary gland
Motor and muscle sense for swallowing muscles
10thVagusN. vagusMedulla oblongataSensory for aortic sinus (pressoreceptors) and aortic body (chemoreceptors) as part of cardiac, respiratory, and blood pressure reflexes
Sensoryfor visceral sensation for thoracic and abdominal organs
Inhibitory (parasympathetic) to heart
Motor and muscle sense for muscles of the pharynx
Motor to smooth muscle of the bronchial tree
Motor to smooth muscle of the esophagus, stomach, intestines, and gallbladder
Motor to gastrointestinal glands
Motor to the muscles of the larynx
11thAccessoryN. accessoriusMedulla oblongata and cervical spinal cordMotor and muscle sense for muscles of the pharynx, soft palate, and larynx
Motor and muscle sense for the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles
12thHypoglossalN. hypoglossusMedulla oblongataMotor and muscle sense for muscles of the tongue



Alveolar, inferior
Lower anterior skull
Terminal branch of external maxillary
Neck and face
Aorta SEE: aorta in vocabulary

Arcuate (Metatarsal a.)
Dorsal a. of foot
Foot and toes
A. of the pterygoid canal
Roof of pharynx; auditory (eustachian) tube
Auditory, internal
Middle of basilar or anterior inferior cerebellar
Internal ear
Auricular, deep
Skin of auditory canal, tympanic membrane, and temporomandibular joint
Auricular, posterior
External carotid
Middle ear; mastoid cells; auricle; parotid gland
Forms brachial artery and seven branches
A. alveolaris inferiorDental; mylohyoid; mental
A. angularis
A. arcuata pedisDeep plantar; dorsal metatarsal; dorsal digital
A. canalis pterygoidei
A. labyrinthi
A. auricularis profunda
A. auricularis posteriorStylomastoid; auricular; occipital
A. axillarisSuperior; thoracic; thoracoacromial; lateral thoracic; subscapular; anterior and posterior humeral; thoracodorsal; brachial


Upper arm
Brachial, deep
Accompanies radial nerve
Brachiocephalic trunk (Innominate a.)
Arch of aorta
Right side of head, neck, and arm
Thoracic aorta
Bronchi; lower trachea; pulmonary vessels; pericardium; part of esophagus
Buccal (Buccinator a.)
Buccinator muscle; mucous membrane of mouth
A. basilarisPosterior cerebral; pontine; internal auditory; anterior inferior cerebellar; superior cerebellar
A. brachialisDeep brachial; nutrient; superior and inferior collateral; muscular
A. profunda brachii
Truncus brachiocephalicusRight subclavian; right common carotid
Rr. bronchialesLeft and right bronchial
A. buccalis


Capsular, middle SEE: Suprarenal a., middle

Carotid, common
Brachiocephalic trunk (right); aortic arch (left)
Neck and thyroid
Carotid, external
Common carotid
Neck; face; skull
Carotid, internal
Common carotid
Anterior brain; eyes; forehead; nose
Abdominal aorta
Stomach; liver; pancreas; duodenum; spleen
Cerebellar, anterior inferior
Anterior undersurface of cerebellum
Cerebellar, posterior inferior
Cerebellar, superior
Near termination of basilar
Upper cerebellum; midbrain; pineal body
Cerebral, anterior
Internal carotid
Cerebral, posterior
Cervical, ascending
Inferior thyroid
Muscles of neck and spinal cord
Cervical, superficial
Thyroid axis
Muscles of shoulder
Cervical, transverse
Thyroid axis
Muscles and glands of neck
Choroidal, anterior (Choroid)
Internal carotid
Internal capsule
Ciliary, anterior
Ophthalmic and lacrimal
Iris; conjunctiva
Ciliary, long posterior
Iris and ciliary process
Ciliary, short posterior
Choroid coat of eye
Circumflex, anterior humeral
Lateral side of axillary
Shoulder joint and upper arm
Circumflex iliac a., deep
External iliac
Muscles of skin and lower abdomen
Circumflex, posterior humeral
Deltoid and shoulder joint; upper arm
Colic, left
Inferior mesenteric
Descending and transverse colon
Colic, middle
Superior mesenteric
Transverse colon
Colic, right
Superior mesenteric
Ascending colon
Collateral, inferior ulnar
Muscles at back of elbow
Collateral, superior ulnar
Elbow joint and triceps muscles
Communicating, posterior
Internal carotid
Hippocampus; thalamus
Coronary, left
Ascending aorta
Left ventricle and atrium
Coronary, right
Ascending aorta
Right ventricle and atrium
Proper hepatic
Gallbladder; liver
A. carotis communisExternal and internal carotid
A. carotis externaSuperior thyroid; ascending pharyngeal; lingual; facial; occipital; posterior auricular; superficial temporal; maxillary
A. carotis internaCaroticotympanic; vidian; cavernous; hypophyseal; semilunar; anterior meningeal; ophthalmic; anterior and middle cerebral; posterior communicating; choroidal
Truncus celiacusLeft gastric; common hepatic; splenic
A. cerebelli inferior anterior
A. cerebelli inferior posterior
A. cerebelli superior
A. cerebri anteriorCortical; central; anterior communicating
A. cerebri posteriorCentral; posterior choroidal; cortical temporal; calcarine; parieto-occipital
A. cervicalis ascendens
A. transversa colliDeep and superficial rami
A. choroides anterior
Aa. ciliares anteriores
Aa. ciliares posteriores longae
Aa. ciliares posteriores breves
A. circumflexa humeri anterior
A. circumflexa ilium profunda
A. circumflexa humeri posterior
A. colica sinistraAscending and descending colic
A. colica mediaRight and left colic
A. colica dextraAscending and descending colic
A. collateralis ulnaris inferior
A. collateralis ulnaris superior
A. communicans posterior cerebri
A. coronaria sinistraAnterior descending coronary; circumflex
A. coronaria dextraPosterior descending; marginal
A. cystica


Digital, common palmar
Palmar arch
Digital, proper palmar (Collateral digital a.)
Common palmar digital
Dorsal, of foot
Continuation of anterior tibial
Aa. digitales palmares communesProper palmar digital
Aa. digitales palmares propriae
A. dorsalis pedisLateral and medial tarsal; deep plantar; arcuate; first dorsal metatarsal


Epigastric, inferior
External iliac
Abdominal muscles; peritoneum
Epigastric, superficial
Skin of abdomen; superficial fascia; inguinal lymph nodes
Epigastric, superior
Internal thoracic
Abdominal muscles and skin; diaphragm
In front of aorta
Ethmoidal, anterior
Ethmoidal cells and frontal sinus; dura mater; nasal cavity
Ethmoidal, posterior
Ethmoidal cells; dura mater; nasal cavity
A. epigastrica inferiorCremasteric
A. epigastrica superficialis
A. epigastrica superior
A. ethmoidalis anteriorAnterior meningeal
A. ethmoidalis posteriorPosterior meningeal


Facial (External maxillary a.)
Carotid triangle
Face; tonsil; palate; submandibular gland
Facial, transverse
Superficial temporal
Parotid gland; skin of face; masseter muscle
Continuation of external iliac
Lower abdominal wall; external genitalia; lower extremity
Femoral, deep
Thigh muscles; hip joint; gluteal muscles; femur
Femoral, lateral circumflex
Deep femoral a.
Hip joint; thigh muscles
Femoral, medial circumflex
Medial aspect of deep femoral a.
Hip joint; thigh muscles
Fibula SEE: Peroneal a.

Forehead muscles; cranium
A. facialisAscending palatine; tonsillar; submental; inferior and superiorlabial; angular; glandular; lateral nasal; muscular
A. transversa faciei
A. femoralisSuperficial epigastric; superficial circumflex iliac; external pudendal; deep femoral; descending genicular
A. profunda femorisPerforating; medial and lateral circumflex
A. circumflexa femoris lateralisAscending; descending; transverse
A. circumflexa femoris medialisDeep; acetabular; transverse; superficial
A. supratrochlearis


Gastric, left
Celiac trunk
Abdominal section of esophagus; stomach; left lobe of liver
Gastric, right
Common hepatic
Lesser curvature of stomach
Gastric, short
End of splenic
Greater curvature of stomach
Common hepatic trunk
Stomach; duodenum; pancreas; greater omentum
Gastro-omental, left
Stomach; greater omentum
Gastro-omental, right
Stomach; greater omentum
Genicular, descending
Knee joint; skin of upper and medial section of leg
Genicular, inferior
Knee joint; skin of upper and middle leg
Genicular, middle
Knee joint, ligaments and synovial membrane of knee
Genicular, superior
On either side of popliteal
Knee joint; femur; patella
Gluteal, inferior
Internal iliac
Buttocks and back of thigh
Gluteal, superior
Internal iliac
Gluteal region
A. gastrica sinistraAnterior and posterior gastric; cardioesophageal
A. gastrica dextra
Aa. gastricae breves
A. gastroduodenalisSuperior pancreaticoduodenal; right gastroepiploic; retroduodenal
A. gastro-omentalis sinistra
A. gastro-omentalis dextraAscending pyloric and ascending branches to stomach
A. genus descendensSaphenous; musculo-articular
A. genus inferior lateralis
A. genus media
A. genus superior lateralis
A. glutea inferiorSciatic
A. glutea superiorSuperficial and deep gluteal


Hemorrhoidal, middle
Internal iliac
Rectum; prostate; seminal vesicles
Hemorrhoidal, superior
Inferior mesenteric
Hepatic, common
Celiac trunk
Stomach; pancreas; duodenum; liver; gallbladder; greater omentum
Hepatic, proper
Common hepatic
Liver and gallbladder
A. rectalis media
A. rectalis superior
A. hepatica communisRight gastric; gastroduodenal; proper hepatic
A. hepatica propriaCystic


Superior mesenteric
Ileum; cecum; appendix; ascending colon
Iliac, common
End of abdominal aorta
Pelvis; abdominal wall; lower limbs
Iliac, external
Common iliac
Abdominal wall; external genitalia; lower limb
Iliac, internal
Common iliac
Walls and viscera of pelvis, buttocks, reproductive organs; medial side of thighs
Iliac, superficial circumflex
Inguinal glands; skin of thigh and abdomen
Maxillary sinus; center of face
Thoracic aorta
Intercostal spaces; back muscles; vertebral column; thoracic wall
Interosseous, anterior (Volar interosseous a.)
Common interosseous
Deep structures of anterior forearm
Interosseous, common
Deep structure of forearm
Interosseous, posterior
Common interosseous
Muscles of posterior forearm
Superior mesenteric
Jejunum and ileum
A. ileocolicaSuperior and inferior ileocolic; appendicular
A. iliaca communisExternal and internal iliac
A. iliaca externaInferior epigastric; deep circumflex iliac
A. iliaca internaSuperior, middle, and inferior vesical; middle hemorrhoidal; obturator; internal pudendal; inferior gluteal; uterine; vaginal; iliolumbar; lateralsacral; superior gluteal
A. circumflexa ilium superficialis
A. infraorbitalisAnterior superior alveolar; orbital
Aa. intercostales posterioresAnterior and posterior rami
A. interossea anteriorMedian; nutrient; muscular
A. interossea communisAnterior and posterior interosseous
A. interossea posteriorRecurrent interosseous


Labial, inferior
Near angle of mouth
Lower lip
Labial, superior
Near angle of mouth
Upper lip
Lacrimal gland; eyelid; conjunctiva
Laryngeal, inferior
Inferior thyroid
Muscles and mucous membrane of trachea and larynx
Laryngeal, superior
Superior thyroid
Muscles, mucous membrane, and glands of larynx
External carotid
Undersurface of tongue; tonsil; epiglottis
Lingual, deep
End of lingual
Undersurface of tongue
Lingual, dorsal
Mucous membrane on dorsum of tongue; glossopalatine arch; tonsil; soft palate; epiglottis
Abdominal aorta
Abdominal wall; vertebrae; lumbar muscles; renal capsule
A. labialis inferior
A. labialis superior
A. lacrimalisLateral palpebral; zygomatic; recurrent
A. laryngea inferior
A. laryngea superior
A. lingualisSuprahyoid; dorsal and deep lingual; sublingual
A. profunda linguae
Rr. dorsales linguae
Aa. lumbalesPosterior lumbar; muscular


Malleolar, lateral anterior
Anterior tibial
Ankle joint
Malleolar, medial anterior
Anterior tibial
Ankle joint
Malleolar, medial posterior
Tibial malleolus
Masseter muscle
Maxillary (Internal maxillary a.)
External carotid
Jaws and teeth; muscles of mastication; ear; meninges; nose; nasal sinus; palate
Maxillary, external SEE: Facial a.

Mediastinal, anterior
Internal thoracic
Anterior mediastinal cavity; portion of thymus
Medullary (Bulbar a.)
Medulla oblongata
Meningeal, middle
Dura mater; cranial bones
Mesenteric, inferior
Abdominal aorta
Left half of transverse colon; descending, iliac, and sigmoid colon; part of rectum
Mesenteric, superior
Abdominal aorta
Small intestine; cecum; ascending colon; part of transverse colon
Metacarpal, palmar
Deep palmar arch
Interosseous muscles and bones
Metatarsal, first dorsal
Dorsal a. of foot
Medial border of foot
Internal thoracic
Diaphragm; abdominal and thoracic walls
A. malleolaris anterior lateralis
A. malleolaris anterior medialis
Rr. malleolares mediales arteriae tibialis posterioris
A. masseterica
A. maxillarisAnterior tympanic; deep auricular; middle and accessory meningeal; inferior and posterior superior alveolar; deep temporal; pterygoid; masseteric; buccal; infraorbital; greater palatine; pharyngeal; sphenopalatine
Rr. mediastinales arteriae thoracicae internae
A. meningea mediaSuperficial; petrosal; superior tympanic; orbital; temporal; and numerous small vessels
A. mesenterica inferiorLeft colic; sigmoid; superior hemorrhoidal
A. mesenterica superiorInferior pancreaticoduodenal; jejunal; ileal; ileocolic; right and middle colon
Aa. metacarpales palmares
A. musculophrenica


Nasal, dorsal
Lacrimal sac; integuments of nose
Internal iliac
Pelvis and thigh
Posterior part of external carotid
Muscles of neck and scalp; meninges; mastoid
Internal carotid
Eye and adjacent structures of face
Abdominal aorta
Ovaries; uterine tubes; ureter
A. dorsalis nasiLacrimal
A. obturatoriaIliac; vesical; pubic; anterior and posterior obturator
A. occipitalisMuscular; meningeal; sternomastoid; descending occipital; auricular
A. ophthalmicaLacrimal; supraorbital; posterior and anterior ethmoidal; medial palpebral; frontal; dorsal nasal; central a. of retina; short posterior, long posterior, and anterior ciliary; muscular
A. ovaricaUreteral


Palatine, ascending
Base of skull; palate; auditory tube
Palatine, greater
Palate and tonsils
Palpebral, medial (Internal Palpebral a.)
Upper and lower eyelids
Pancreaticoduodenal, inferior
Superior mesenteric
Pancreas; duodenum
Pancreaticoduodenal, superior
Pancreas; duodenum
Deep femoral
Back of thigh
Internal thoracic
Diaphragm; pericardium; pleura
Peroneal (Fibular)
Posterior tibial
Ankle; deep calf muscles
Pharyngeal, ascending
Posterior part of external carotid
Pharynx; soft palate; ear; meninges; cranial nerves; capitis muscles
Aorta, abdominal
Diaphragm; adrenal glands
Aorta, thoracic
Plantar, deep
Dorsal a. of foot
Sole of foot
Plantar, lateral
Posterior tibial
Toes and sole of foot
Plantar, medial
Posterior tibial
Muscles and skin of sole of foot and toes
Continuation of femoral
Knee and calf
Pudendal, external
External genitalia; medial thigh
Pudendal, internal
Internal iliac
External genitalia
Right ventricle
Pulmonary, left
Pulmonary trunk
Left lung
Pulmonary, right
Pulmonary trunk
Right lung
A. palatina ascendens
A. palatina majorGreater and lesser palatine
Aa. palpebrales medialesSuperior and inferior palpebral
Aa. pancreaticoduodenales inferiores
Aa. supraduodenales superiores
Aa. perforantes
A. pericardiacophrenica
A. peronea (A. fibularis)Perforating; communicating; calcaneal; tibial and fibular nutrient; lateral and medial malleolar
A. pharyngea ascendensPharyngeal; palatine; posterior meningeal; prevertebral; inferior tympanic
Aa. phrenicae inferioresMedial, lateral, and superior adrenal
Aa. phrenicae superiores
R. plantaris profundaFirst plantar metatarsal
A. plantaris lateralisPlantar arch and plantar metatarsal
A. plantaris medialisSuperficial digital
A. popliteaAnterior and posterior tibial; lateral and medial superior genicular; middle, sural, lateral, and medial inferior genicular; genicular articular
Aa. pudendae externae
A. pudenda internaPosterior scrotal or posterior labial; inferior hemorrhoidal; perineal; urethral; a. of bulb of penis or vestibule; deep a. of penis or clitoris; dorsal a. of penis or clitoris
Truncus pulmonalisRight and left pulmonary
A. pulmonalis sinistraNumerous branches
A. pulmonalis dextraNumerous branches


Forearm; wrist; hand
Radial, of index finger
Principal a. of thumb
Index finger
Rectal, inferior
Internal iliac artery via internal pudental artery
Anus, anal sphincter, and surrounding skin
Rectal, middle
Internal iliac artery
Inferior rectum and anal canal
Rectal, superior
Inferior mesenteric artery
Rectum and anal canal
Recurrent, anterior tibial
Anterior tibial
Knee joint
Recurrent, posterior tibial
Anterior tibial
Knee joint
Recurrent, radial
Below elbow from radial
Elbow joint; muscles of forearm
Recurrent, ulnar
Elbow joint; skin and muscles of elbow
Abdominal aorta
Kidney; suprarenal gland; ureter
Head of pancreas; duodenum; bile duct
A. radialisRecurrent radial; muscular; palmar and dorsal carpal; superficial palmar; first dorsal metacarpal; principal a. of thumb; perforating; recurrent; palmar
A. radialis indicis
A. rectalis inferior
A. rectalis media
A. rectalis superior
A. recurrens tibialis anterior
A. recurrens tibialis posterior
A. recurrens radialis
A. recurrens ulnarisAnterior and posterior recurrent
A. renalisInferior suprarenal


Sacral, lateral
Internal iliac
Coccyx and sacrum
Sacral, middle
Abdominal aorta
Sacrum; coccyx; rectum
Scapula, circumflex a. of
Lateral border of scapula; infraspinous fossa
Scapular, descending (Dorsal scapular a.)
Medial border of scapula
Inferior mesenteric
Iliac, sigmoid, and pelvic colon
Spermatic, internal SEE: Testicular a.

Sphenopalatine (Nasopalatine a.)
Spinal, anterior (Ventral spinal a.)
Anterior spinal cord
Spinal, posterior (Dorsal spinal a.)
Posterior spinal cord
Celiac trunk
Pancreas; spleen; stomach; greater omentum
Occipital or external carotid
Sternocleidomastoid muscles
Posterior auricular
Mastoid; tympanic cavity; stapedius muscle
Brachiocephalic trunk (right); arch of aorta (left)
Brain; meninges; spinal cord; neck; thoracic walls; upper limbs
Thoracic aorta
Upper abdominal wall
Anterior margin of hypoglossus
Sublingual gland and mucous membrane of mouth and gums
Mylohyoid muscle; submandibular and sublingual glands; lowerlip
Forehead; frontal sinus; upper eyelid; upper muscles of orbit
Suprarenal, middle (Middle capsular a.)
Abdominal aorta
Suprarenal gland
Suprascapular (Transverse scapular a.)
Thyroid axis
Scapular; clavicle; shoulder joint
Popliteal opposite knee joint
Aa. sacrales laterales
A. sacralis medianaLowest lumbar
A. circumflexa scapulae
A. scapularis descendens
Aa. sigmoideae
A. sphenopalatinaPosterior lateral nasal; posterior septal
A. spinalis anterior
A. spinalis posterior
A. splenicaPancreatic; left gastroepiploic; short gastric; splenic
Rr. sternocleidomastoidei arteriae occipitalis
A. stylomastoidea
A. subclaviaVertebral; internal thoracic; thyrocervical; costocervical; transversecervical
A. subcostalisDorsal and spinal
A. sublingualis
A. submentalis
A. subscapularisScapular circumflex and thoracodorsal
A. supraorbitalis
A. suprarenalis media
A. suprascapularisAcromial; suprasternal
Aa. surales


Tarsal, lateral
Dorsal a. of foot
Muscles and joints of tarsus
Tarsal, medial
Dorsal a. of foot
Middle portion of foot
Temporal, middle
Above zygomatic arch
Temporal muscle
Temporal, superficial
End of external carotid
Parotid gland; auricle; scalp; skin of face; masseter muscle
Testicular (Internal spermatic a.)
Abdominal aorta
Ureter; epididymis; testes
Thoracic, internal (Internal mammary a.)
Anterior thoracic wall; mediastinal structures; diaphragm
Thoracic, lateral
Shoulder muscles and axillary glands
Thoracic, superior
Muscles of chest
Muscles and skin of upper arm, shoulder, and chest
Posterior portion of axillary
Thumb, principal a. of
Sides and palmar aspect of thumb
Thyroid, inferior
Thyroid axis
Thyroid gland; esophagus
Thyroid, superior
External carotid
Hyoid muscles; larynx; thyroid gland; pharynx
Tibial, anterior
Leg; ankle; foot
Tibial, posterior
Lower end of popliteal
Leg; foot; heel
Tympanic, anterior
Lining of tympanic arch
Tympanic, inferior
Ascending pharyngeal
Tympanic cavity
Forearm; wrist and hand
A. tarsalis lateralis
Aa. mediales
A. temporalis media
A. temporalis superficialisTransverse facial; middle temporal; anterior auricular; frontal;parietal
A. testicularisUreteral
A. thoracica internaPericardiacophrenic; anterior mediastinal; pericardial; sternal; intercostal; perforating; musculophrenic; superior epigastric
A. thoracica lateralisIn the female, external mammary
A. thoracica suprema
A. thoracoacromialisPectoral; acromial; clavicular; deltoid
A. thoracodorsalis
A. princeps pollicisRadial a. of index finger
A. thyroidea inferiorInferior laryngeal; tracheal; muscular; esophageal; ascending cervical
A. thyroidea superiorHyoid; sternomastoid; superior laryngeal; cricothyroid
A. tibialis anteriorAnterior and posterior tibial recurrent; fibular; lateral and medial anterior malleolar
A. tibialis posteriorPeroneal; lateral and medial posterior malleolar; communicating; plantar; tibial and fibular nutrient
A. tympanica anterior
A. tympanica inferior
A. ulnarisAnterior and posterior recurrent; common interosseous; muscular; palmar and dorsal carpal; deep palmar; superficial palmar arch

U - V

Internal iliac
Uterus; uterine tubes; ovary; vagina
Vagina; bladder
Muscles of neck; vertebrae; spinal cord; cerebellum; interior of cerebrum
Vesical, inferior
Internal iliac
Bladder; prostate; seminal vesicles
Vesical, superior
Internal iliac
Upper part of bladder
A. uterinaVaginal; ovarian; tubal
A. vaginalis
A. vertebralisSpinal; muscular; anterior and posterior spinal; posterior inferior cerebellar; medullary
A. vesicalis inferior
Aa. vesicales superioresA. to the ductus deferens



Union of supratrochlear and supraorbital veins
Continues inferiorly as facial v.
Short superficial v. in nasal region
Antebrachial, median
Base of dorsum of thumb
Ascends forearm between cephalic and basilic veins to elbow where it joins these veins
Superficial v. in forearm
Auricular, posterior
Plexus on side of head
From side of head it descends behind the pinna where it unites with retromandibular v. to form the external jugular v.
Superficial v. that drains parietal and posterior part of temporal region
Junction of basilic and brachial veins
Lower border of teres major muscles to lateral border of first rib where it becomes the subclavian v.
Portion of venous trunk of upper extremity
Arises from ascending lumbar v.
From level of diaphragm up posterior thoracic wall on right of vertebral bodies to superior vena cava
Trunk that connects superior and inferior venae cavae
V. angularis
V. mediana antebrachii
V. auricularis posterior
V. axillaris
V. azygos


Ulnar side of dorsal rete of hand
Ascends posteriorly on the forearm. Below the elbow it moves to exterior surface where it joins axillary v.
Superficial v. of hand and forearm
Tributaries from structures in upper arm
Follows course of brachial artery and joins axillary v.
Each v. drains an arm
Brachiocephalic (Innominate v.)
Union of internal jugular and subclavian veins
From sternal end of clavicle it descends below the cartilage of first rib to form superior vena cava
Paired veins that drain blood from head, neck, and upper extremities and unite to form superior vena cava
Capillaries of bronchi and roots of lungs
Empties into azygos v. on the right and into hemiazygos or superior intercostal veins on left
Several veins that return blood from larger bronchi and roots of lungs
V. basilica
Vv. brachiales
Vv. brachiocephalicae (dextra et sinistra)
Vv. bronchiales


Capillaries of myocardium
Usually empty into coronary sinus
Drain blood from myocardium
Each v. receives a v. from caudal and cephalic portions of embryo
Include precardinal and postcardinal veins
First veins to appear in body of embryo
Radial border of dorsal rete of hand
Winds anteriorly up arm and empties into axillary v.
Superficial v. of arm and forearm
Cerebellar, inferior
Undersurface of cerebellum
Empty into transverse, superior, petrosal, and occipital sinuses
Large veins of undersurface of cerebellum
Cerebellar, superior
Upper surface of cerebellum
Empty into straight sinus or transverse sinus
Veins from upper surface of cerebellum
Cerebral, great
Formed by union of two internal cerebral veins
Curves backward and upward around the splenium of the corpuscallosum and continues as a straight sinus
Short median trunk
Cerebral, inferior
Tributaries in lobes of cerebrum
From various lobes they empty into cavernous and transverse sinuses
Small-sized veins that drain undersurfaces of hemispheres
Cerebral, internal
Formed near interventricular foramen by union of terminal and choroid veins
Run backward parallel to one another and unite at the splenium of the corpus callosum to form great cerebral v.
Two veins that drain deep parts of hemispheres
Cerebral, superficial middle
Lateral surface of cerebral hemisphere
Follows lateral cerebral fissure and empties into cavernous sinus
Drains lateral surface of cerebral hemisphere
Cerebral, superior
Capillaries of cerebrum
From cerebrum to longitudinal cerebral fissure, opening intosuperior sagittal sinus
Eight to twelve veins that drain the surface of the cerebral hemisphere
Cervical, deep
Plexus in suboccipital triangle
Follows deep cervical artery down neck and empties into vertebralor brachiocephalic v.
Deep v. of neck
Cervical, transverse
Capillaries of supraspinous region of scapula and neck
From supraspinous region of scapula diagonally across shoulder to subclavian or external jugular v.
Drain blood from supraspinous region of scapula and neck
Capillaries of superficial tissues of body wall
Throughout subcutaneous tissue of body wall
One of the veins located beneath layers of superficial fascia immediately under the skin
Capillaries of gallbladder
From gallbladder along cystic duct to enter right branch of portal v. just below liver
Drains gallbladder
Vv. cordis; Vv. cardiaca (4)
V. cephalica
Vv. cerebelli inferiores
Vv. cerebelli superiores
V. cerebri magna
Vv. cerebri inferiores
Vv. cerebri internae
V. cerebri media superficialis
Vv. cerebri superiores
V. cervicalis profunda
Vv. transversae cervicis
V. cutanea
V. cystica


Throughout the body
Accompany homonymous arteries and usually enclosed in sheaths with those vessels
Digital, palmar
Capillaries of superficial tissues of palmar surface of fingers
Along proper and common digital arteries
Superficial veins of palmar surface of fingers
Digital, plantar
Capillaries of toes
Along plantar surface of toes to foot to form four metatarsal veins
Veins of plantar surface of toes
Spongy bone between internal and external skull surfaces
Connect with meningeal veins, sinuses of the dura mater, and veins of the pericranium
Large veins of the skull. Main veins are frontal, anterior and posterior temporal, and occipital.
Vv. digitales palmares
Vv. digitales plantares
Vv. diploicae


Cerebral sinuses
Pass through foramina of skull
Small valveless veins that connect sinuses inside the skull andveins external to it
Epigastric, inferior
Capillaries of internal surface of lower anterior abdominal walls
Internal surface of abdominal wall diagonally across wall to flow into external iliac v.
V. of lower anterior abdominal wall
Epigastric, superficial
Superficial tissues of lower portion of anterior abdominal wall
Follows superficial epigastric artery and opens into great saphenous v.
Drains lower and medial portion of abdominal wall
Capillaries of esophagus
From esophagus empty into inferior thyroid, hemiazygos, azygos, or left brachiocephalic v.
Several small trunks that drain esophagus
Vv. emissariae
V. epigastrica inferior
V. epigastrica superficialis
Vv. esophageae


Continuation of angular v.
From inner angle of orbit it passes diagonally downward and outward to lower jaw
Deep v. of face. Branches drain deep structures of face.
Continuation of popliteal v.
From posterior region of knee it follows course of femoral artery, becoming external iliac v. at inguinal ligament
Large v. of thigh
Femoral, deep
Tributaries from posterior region of thigh
Accompanies deep femoral artery to femoral triangle where it joins femoral v.
Deep v. of thigh
V. facialis
V. femoralis
V. profunda femoris


Gastric, left
Gastrohepatic omentum
Right to left along lesser curvature of stomach to enter portalv.
Drains both surfaces of stomach
Gastric, right (Pyloric)
Small v. from upper portion of stomach
From upper stomach runs left to right along pyloric portion of lesser curvature of stomach to end in portal v.
Drains upper portion of stomach
Gastric, short
Capillaries of fundus of stomach
From wall of stomach empty into splenic v.
Drain wall of stomach
Gastro-omental, left
Branches from stomach and greater omentum
Right to left on greater curvature of stomach to empty into splenic v.
V. of upper stomach
Gastro-omental, right
Branches from greater omentum and lower surfaces of stomach
Left to right on greater curvature of stomach to empty into superior mesenteric v.
V. of lower stomach
Gluteal, inferior (Sciatic v.)
Capillaries of upper part of back of thigh
Upper back thigh through lower sciatic foramen where they unite into a single v. and empty into internal iliac v.
V. of lower region of hip
Gluteal, superior
Capillaries of gluteal and adjacent muscles
From tissues of hip they pass through sciatic foramen to empty into internal iliac v.
Drain muscles of buttocks
V. gastrica sinistra
V. gastrica dextra
Vv. gastricae breves
V. gastro-omentalis sinistra
V. gastro-omentalis dextra
Vv. gluteae inferiores
Vv. gluteae superiores


Left ascending lumbar v.
Lumbar region through diaphragm, crossing in front of spine and emptying into azygos v.
Single v. of lower left thoracic wall
Hemiazygos, accessory
Capillaries of upper intercostal spaces
From left side of vertebra crosses over spine to enter azygos v.
Drains blood from intercostal spaces above level of sixth to seventh
Tissues of liver
From liver empty into inferior vena cava
Drain the liver
Capillaries of organs in area of ileum and colon
From lower portion of ascending colon runs parallel with ileocolic artery and empties into superior mesenteric v.
Large tributary of mesenteric v. that drains the ileum, appendix, cecum, and lower part of ascending colon
V. hemiazygos
V. hemiazygos accessoria
Vv. hepaticae
V. ileocolica


Iliac, common
Union of internal and external iliac veins
Diagonally across pelvis
Large v. that drains blood from pelvis and leg. One on each side meets to form inferior vena cava
Iliac, deep circumflex
Capillaries of deep muscles of upper portion of thigh and lower portion of abdomen
Deep tissues of anterior superior spine along inner surface of pelvic brim to external iliac v.
V. of deep structures of iliac region
Iliac, external
Begins behind inguinal ligament as continuation of external iliac v.
Behind inguinal ligament to sacroiliac articulation where it unites with internal iliac v. to form common iliac v.
Upward continuation of external iliac v.
Iliac, internal (Hypogastric v.)
Near upper part of greater sciatic foramen
Upper part of greater sciatic foramen
Short v. that draws blood from pelvis
Tributaries of other veins of intercostal spaces
Intercostal spaces to region of lower ribs
One of a number of veins (anterior, posterior, right, left, superior,and highest) that drain blood from intercostal spaces
Vertebral plexuses
Vertebral plexuses through intervertebral foramina where they empty into regional veins
One of numerous veins that drain vertebral plexuses and accompany spinal nerves
V. iliaca communis
V. circumflexa ilium profunda
V. iliaca externa
V. iliaca interna
V. intervertebralis


Jugular, anterior
From veins of region of lower lip
From lower jaw descends neck anteriorly and enters external jugular v.
Superficial v. of anterior region of neck
Jugular, external
Formed at parotid gland by union of posterior auricular and retromandibular veins
From parotid gland descends perpendicularly in neck to empty into subclavian, internal jugular, or brachiocephalic v.
A large superficial v. that receives greater part of blood from exterior of cranium and deep parts of face
Jugular, internal
Continuous from transverse sinus at base of skull
Runs vertically in neck and unites with subclavian v. at root of neck to form the brachiocephalic v.
Largest v. of head and neck. Collects blood from brain, superficial parts of face, and neck
V. jugularis anterior
V. jugularis externa
V. jugularis interna


Capillaries of tongue and sublingual areas
Follows distribution of lingual artery
Deep v. of tongue
Capillaries of abdominal walls
Abdominal walls to ascending lumbar v., inferior vena cava, and iliolumbar v.
Four or five veins of abdominal walls
Lumbar, ascending
Lateral sacral veins
Lateral sacral v. along lateral border of spinal column to first lumbar vertebra where it becomes azygos v. on right side and hemiazygos v. on left side
Longitudinal v. that connects lumbar veins
V. lingualis
Vv. lumbales
V. lumbalis ascendens


Meninges of brain
Accompany meningeal arteries from meninges and empty into regional sinuses and veins
Multiple veins of dura mater of brain
Mesenteric, superior
Capillaries of small intestine
From ileum in right iliac fossa it follows distribution of its artery and unites with splenic v. behind pancreas to form portal v.
Large v. from small intestine
Mesenteric, inferior
Capillaries of colon and rectum
As a continuation of superior rectal v. ascends behind peritoneum and enters splenic v.
Drains blood from rectum and sigmoid and descending parts of colon
Metacarpal, dorsal
Capillaries of hand
From digital venous arches join to form dorsal venous rete of hand
Superficial veins of back of hand
Metacarpal, palmar
Capillaries of palm
Deep tissues of palm along metacarpal bone to deep venous arches
Deep veins on both sides of hand
Metatarsal, dorsal
Dorsal digital veins of toes
Through metatarsal spaces to unite to form dorsal venous arch
Deep veins of back of foot
Metatarsal, plantar
Plantar digital veins
From toes to ankles and open into plantar venous arch
Deep veins of solar aspect of foot
Capillaries of upper abdominal wall, lower intercostal spaces, and diaphragm
Along thoracic surface of diaphragm upward lateral to sternum to unite with superior epigastric v. to form internal thoracic v.
Drains blood from thoracic surface of diaphragm and from walls of thorax and abdomen
Vv. meningeae
V. mesenterica superior
V. mesenterica inferior
Vv. metacarpeae dorsales
Vv. metacarpeae palmares
Vv. metatarsales dorsales
Vv. metatarsales plantares
Vv. musculophrenicae


Union of tributaries of hip and muscle of upper posterior thigh
From upper portion of adductor region of thigh run through upper part of obturator foramen and run back to empty into internal iliac v.
Drains blood from obturator foramen
Plexus at back part of vertex of skull
From plexus of occipital region, occasionally following course of occipital artery, extends to internal or external jugular v.
Superficial veins that drain occipital region
Ophthalmic, inferior
Venous network at forepart of orbit
Runs backward in lower orbit and divides into two branches. One passes through inferior orbital fissure and joins pterygoid venous plexus; the second enters cranium through superior orbital fissure and ends in cavernous sinus
Ophthalmic v. that divides into two terminal branches
Ophthalmic, superior
Inner angle of orbit
Follows course of ophthalmic artery into cavernous sinus
Paired veins of orbital cavity
Ovarian, right and left
Capillaries of ovaries, uterine tubes, and adjacent structures
Pampiniform plexus of broad ligament into inferior vena cavaon right and left renal v. on left
Drains ovaries
Vv. obturatoriae
v. occipitale
V. ophthalmica inferior
V. ophthalmica superior
V. ovarica dextra and V. ovarica sinistra


Palatine, external
Capillaries of deep tissues of neck
Palatine regions into facial v.
Drains blood from tonsils and soft palate
Capillaries of pancreas
From pancreas into splenic and superior mesenteric veins
V. of pancreas
Parietal emissary
Upper skull
Connects superior sagittal sinus with extracranial veins
Small v. that passes through the parietal foramen of the skull
Cutaneous veins in region of umbilicus
From region of umbilicus run backward and upward to left portal v.
Small important veins that establish communication between portal v. and superior and inferior epigastric veins
Penis, dorsal v. of
Capillaries of skin or tissue of penis
Runs length of penis between two dorsal arteries
Two (deep and superficial) veins of penis
Peroneal (Fibular veins)
Veins of ankle and capillaries of tissues of leg
From venous plexus in region of heel upward along lateral region of deep tissue to flow into posterior tibial v.
Deep veins of leg
Pharyngeal plexus
Empty from pharyngeal plexus into internal jugular v.
Drain pharyngeal plexus
Phrenic, inferior
Tissues of diaphragm
From diaphragm flow to inferior vena cava on right side and left suprarenal v. on left side
Drain abdominal surface of diaphragm
Union of tibial veins at lower border of popliteus muscle
From tibial veins upward to adductor hiatus to become femoral v.
Large v. in posterior region of knee
Union of superior mesenteric and splenic veins
Abdominal cavity
Subdivision of systemic venous system. Collects blood from digestive tract and conveys it to the liver.
Pudendal, external
Capillaries of superficial tissues of lower abdomen, scrotum, or labia
From lower abdomen transversely across upper region of thigh to great saphenous or femoral v.
Drain blood from superficial regions of medial aspect of upper thigh and receive subcutaneous dorsal veins of external genitals
Pudendal, internal
Deep vein of penis or clitoris
Follows course of internal pudendal artery and opens into internal iliac v.
Drains the perineum and external genitals
Capillaries around air sacs of lungs
Lungs to left atrium
Four veins that return oxygenated blood from lungs to left atrium of heart
V. palatina externa
Vv. pancreaticae
V. emissaria parietalis
Vv. parumbilicales
V. dorsalis profunda penis
Vv. peroneae (fibulares)
Vv. pharyngeae
Vv. phrenicae inferiores
V. poplitea
V. portae hepatis
Vv. pudendae externae
V. pudenda interna
Vv. pulmonales


Palmar arches of hand
From palmar arches of hand accompany radial artery along lateral side of forearm in deep tissues to unite with ulnar v. to form brachial v.
Large deep veins on radial side of forearm
Rectal, inferior
Venous plexus of anal canal
Anal canal to internal pudendal v.
Drain the rectal plexus
Rectal, middle
Rectal plexus with tributaries from bladder, prostate, and seminal vesicles
Run laterally from rectal plexus to internal iliac v.
Drain the rectal plexus
Rectal, superior
Capillaries of rectum
Ascends from rectal plexus to brim of pelvis into inferior mesenteric v.
Drains upper part of rectal plexus
Capillaries of kidneys. The left v. receives the left suprarenal v. and left gonadal v.
From kidneys transversely across posterior abdominal wall to inferior vena cava
Short thick trunks that drain the kidneys. The left is longer than the right
Vv. radiales
Vv. rectales inferiores
Vv. rectales mediae
V. rectalis superior
Vv. renales


Sacral, lateral
Tissues of posterior pelvic wall
Posterior pelvic wall upward along sacrum to empty into internal iliac v.
Large v. of posterior pelvic wall veins
Sacral, middle
Capillaries of tissues of posterior pelvic wall
From pelvic wall in sacral region follows middle sacral artery to empty into common iliac v.
Large v. of posterior pelvic wall
Saphenous, great
Medial marginal v. of dorsum of foot
Dorsum of foot to femoral v. just below the inguinal ligament
Longest v. in body
Saphenous, small
Continuation of marginal v.
From behind malleolus ascends back of leg to knee joint where it opens into popliteal v.
Large superficial v. of back of leg
Sciatic SEE: Gluteal v., inferior

Spinal, anterior and posterior
Spinal cord and its pia mater
Spinal cord through roots to internal vertebral venous plexuses
Network of veins draining blood from spinal cord
Union of several small veins at the hilus of the spleen
From spleen transversely across abdomen to head of pancreas; forms portal v. by joining the superior mesenteric v.
Large v. that drains blood from spleen and part of stomach
Subcardinal SEE: Cardinal v.

Continuation of axillary v.
Outer border of first rib to sternal end of clavicle where it joins the internal jugular v. to form the brachiocephalic v.
Main venous trunk of upper extremity
Capillaries and superficial tissues of region of eye
From region of eye along lateral wall of orbital cavity to root of nose where it unites with supratrochlear v. to form angular v.
Drains upper portion of orbital cavity
Suprarenal, left
Capillaries of left adrenal gland
Hilum of left suprarenal gland, ascending to left renal v.
V. of left adrenal gland
Suprarenal, right
Capillaries of right adrenal gland
Hilum of right adrenal gland to inferior vena cava
V. of right adrenal gland
Supratrochlear (Frontal v.) (2)
Capillaries of anterior region of scalp
From venous plexuses in forehead diagonally to left of root of nose where they unite with supraorbital v. to form angular v.
Drain the anterior scalp
Vv. sacrales laterales
V. sacralis mediana
V. saphena magna
V. saphena parva
Vv. spinales anteriores and Vv. superiores
V. splenica
V. subclavia
V. supraorbitalis
V. suprarenalis sinistra
V. suprarenalis dextra
Vv. supratrochleares


Temporal, middle
Substance of temporal muscle
From lateral superficial plexus of skull it passes to zygoma where it joins superficial temporal v. to form retromandibular v.
Superficial v. of lateral portion of stomach
Temporal, superficial
Lateral scalp in parietal and frontal region
Temporal region of scalp diagonally to ear and downward to mandible where they unite with maxillary v. to form retromandibular v.
Veins of superficial tissues of skull
Capillaries of testes
From brim of pelvis upward along posterior abdominal wall toinferior vena cava on right and renal v. on left
Receives blood from testis and epididymis
Thoracic, internal
Tributaries from tissues of intercostal spaces
Tributaries form a single trunk that runs up medial side ofinternal thoracic artery and ends in brachiocephalic v.
Deep v. of chest draining intercostal spaces
Thoracic, lateral (Long thoracic v.)
Capillaries of muscles and glands of anterior chest
Tissues of anterior chest muscles to axillary v.
A large tributary v. of the axillary v. that drains the lateral thoracic wall
Region of superficial epigastric v.
Run laterally along trunk from superficial epigastric v. tolateral thoracic v.
Superficial v. of trunk that establishes an important communication between the femoral and axillary veins
Thyroid, inferior
Veins from thyroid glands
Downward to brachiocephalic v.
Two or more veins that arise in venous plexuses on thyroid gland
Thyroid, superior
Substance and surface of thyroid gland
Accompanies superior thyroid artery and empties into internal jugular v.
One v. from either side of thyroid
Tibial, anterior
Capillaries of leg tissue and dorsal metatarsal v.
Accompany anterior tibial artery, ascending between tibia and fibula and uniting with posterior tibial v. to form popliteal v.
Deep veins of anterior aspect of leg
Tibial, posterior
Capillaries of deep tissues of leg
From ankle up posterior aspect of leg to unite with anterior tibial v. to form popliteal v. just below knee
Deep veins of back of leg
V. temporalis media
Vv. temporales superficiales
V. testicularis dextra and sinistra
Vv. thoracicae internae
V. thoracica lateralis
Vv. thoracoepigastricae
V. thyroidea inferior
V. thyroidea superior
Vv. tibiales anteriores
Vv. tibiales posteriores


Palmar arches of hand
Palmar arches of hand upward in deep tissues along ulnar side of forearm to form brachial v. with radial v. at elbow
Large deep veins of medial aspect of forearm
Placental tissues
Along umbilical cord through umbilicus to liver upward through inferior vena cava to heart
V. that carries blood from placenta to fetus
Tissues of uterus
Uterine plexus through part of the broad ligament to empty into internal iliac v.
Veins carrying blood from uterus
Vv. ulnares
V. umbilicalis sinistra
Vv. uterinae


Vena cava inferior
Right and left iliac veins
From union of iliac veins at level of fifth lumbar vertebra to right atrium of heart
Returns blood from lower half of body
Vena cava superior
Two brachiocephalic veins
From below right costal cartilage to right atrium of heart
Drains blood from upper half of body
Numerous small tributaries in the suboccipital triangle
Base of skull down neck, opening into brachiocephalic v.
Drains blood from internal vertebral venous plexuses
Vertebral, anterior
Plexus around transverse process of upper cervical vertebrae
Descends from region of upper cervical vertebrae with ascending cervical artery and opens into terminal part of vertebral v.
Small v.
V. cava inferior
V. cava superior
V. vertebralis
V. vertebralis anterior

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Venes, Donald, editor. "Anatomy." Taber's Medical Dictionary, 23rd ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2017. Nursing Central, nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/764285/0.4/Anatomy.
Anatomy. In: Venes D, ed. Taber's Medical Dictionary. 23rd ed. F.A. Davis Company; 2017. https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/764285/0.4/Anatomy. Accessed July 20, 2019.
Anatomy. (2017). In Venes, D. (Ed.), Taber's Medical Dictionary. Available from https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/764285/0.4/Anatomy
Anatomy [Internet]. In: Venes D, editors. Taber's Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company; 2017. [cited 2019 July 20]. Available from: https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/764285/0.4/Anatomy.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Anatomy ID - 764285 ED - Venes,Donald, BT - Taber's Medical Dictionary UR - https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/764285/0.4/Anatomy PB - F.A. Davis Company ET - 23 DB - Nursing Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER -