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Ballard tool, Ballard score


[Jeanne Ballard, U.S. neonatologist]
A system for estimating newborn gestational age by rating physical and neuromuscular characteristics of maturity. For infants born between 20 and 28 weeks' gestation, Ballard tools are more accurate than other systems of estimating gestational age. Six neuromuscular markers are assessed: posture, square window (degree of wrist flexion), arm recoil, popliteal angle (degree of knee flexion); scarf sign (ability to extend infant's arm across the chest past the midline); and heel-to-ear extension. Seven physical characteristics are also evaluated: skin; lanugo; plantar creases; breast; eye and ear; and genitals. Each factor is scored independently, and then an overall sum is used to determine the gestational age. The tool is most accurate if performed within the first 12 to 20 hr of life or as soon as the baby's condition stabilizes.

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Venes, Donald, editor. "Ballard Tool, Ballard Score." Taber's Medical Dictionary, 23rd ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2017. Nursing Central, nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/769075/all/Ballard_tool__Ballard_score.
Ballard tool, Ballard score. In: Venes D, ed. Taber's Medical Dictionary. 23rd ed. F.A. Davis Company; 2017. https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/769075/all/Ballard_tool__Ballard_score. Accessed July 17, 2019.
Ballard tool, Ballard score. (2017). In Venes, D. (Ed.), Taber's Medical Dictionary. Available from https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/769075/all/Ballard_tool__Ballard_score
Ballard Tool, Ballard Score [Internet]. In: Venes D, editors. Taber's Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company; 2017. [cited 2019 July 17]. Available from: https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/769075/all/Ballard_tool__Ballard_score.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
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