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pl. nephritides [nephr- + -itis]
Inflammation of the kidneys. The condition whether either acute or chronic, is caused by bacteria or their toxins, e.g., pyelonephritis, autoimmune disorders, e.g., poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or toxic chemicals, e.g., pesticides, mercury, arsenic, lead, alcohol. The glomeruli, tubules, interstitial tissues, and renal pelvis may be affected.

Renal function is assessed by measuring serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and urine creatinine clearance levels. Signs of renal failure (oliguria, azotemia, acidosis) are reported. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, electrolyte levels, intake and output of fluids, and body weights are monitored. The health care provider observes, records, and reports hematuria and monitors blood pressure using the same cuff, arm, and position each time. Antihypertensive drugs are administered as prescribed. The patient is encouraged to maintain adequate hydration and follow the prescribed dietary restrictions, which may include limits on the amounts of sodium, potassium, fluid volume, and protein ingested. Intravenous fluid intake is monitored. Complications of hypertension are anticipated and prevented.

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