[L. solutio, loosening, solution]

1. A liquid containing a dissolved substance.
2. The process by which a solid is homogeneously mixed with a liquid, solid, or gas so that the dissolved substances cannot be distinguished from the resultant fluid.
3. A mixture formed by dissolution of substances.
The liquid in which the substances are dissolved is called the solvent and the substance dissolved, the solute.

aqueous solution

A solution containing water as the solvent.

balanced solution

SEE: 1. Isotonic solution.
2. A solution whose concentrations are matched physiologically to the part of the body in which it will be infused or used for irrigation.
SEE: isotonic solution

balanced salt solution

A crystalloid solution whose ionic and acid/base composition is similar to the composition of extracellular fluids.
SYN: SEE: balanced crystalloid

Benedict solution

SEE: Benedict solution

buffer solution

A solution of a weak acid and its salt, e.g., carbonic acid, sodium bicarbonate, important in maintaining a constant pH, esp. of the blood.

Burow solution

SEE: Burow solution

citrate solution

A solution, usually combined with dextrose and other agents, to prevent blood clotting. It allows whole blood to be stored until it is needed for transfusion.

cobra venom solution

A sterile physiological salt solution containing minute quantities of cobra venom.

colloidal solution

A solution in which the solute is suspended, not dissolved, such as gelatin or albumin.

solution of contiguity

The dislocation or displacement of two normally contiguous parts.

Dakin solution

SEE: Dakin solution

Fehling solution

SEE: Fehling solution

Hartmann solution

SEE: Hartmann solution

heated in aqueous solution

The technically accurate term for pasteurization, when a substance is heated to a specific temperature for a precise duration.
SEE: pasteurization

heparin lock flush solution

A solution of unfractionated heparins formerly used to keep intravenous infusion devices from clotting. Heparin flushes are now seldom used because they are more expensive than saline flushes and pose a risk of heparin-related thrombocytopenia, a potentially life-threatening allergy.

histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate solution

ABBR: HTK solution A preservative to protect a harvested organ before its transplantation into a donor. It is typically infused into the donor organ before the organ is removed from the body and then used to bathe the organ while it is kept in storage at 4° C (39.2° F) before implantation into the recipient.

hyperbaric solution

A solution with a specific gravity and osmotic pressure greater than one or greater than the solution to which it is compared. It is important in injecting medicines or anesthetic agents into the spinal fluid in the spinal canal.
SEE: hyperbaric chamber

hypertonic solution

A solution having a greater osmotic pressure than that of cells or body fluids; a solution that draws water out of cells, thus inducing plasmolysis.

hypotonic solution

A solution having an osmotic pressure less than that of cells or body fluids; a solution that will cause water to enter cells, thus inducing swelling and possibly lysis.

iodine solution

A solution of iodine or potassium iodine used as a source of iodine.

irrigating solution

Any fluid used to rinse an organ or body cavity.
SEE: irrigation.

isobaric solution

A solution with a specific gravity equal to one or equal to the solution with which it is being compared.
SEE: hyperbaric solution

isohydric solution

A solution having the same hydrogen ion concentration or pH as another.

isosmotic solution

A solution with the same osmotic pressure as the solution with which it is being compared.

isotonic solution

A solution that has a concentration of electrolytes, nonelectrolytes, or both that will exert osmotic pressure equivalent to that of the solution with which it is being compared. Either 0.16 M sodium chloride solution (approx. 0.95% salt in water) or 0.3 M nonelectrolyte solution is approx. isotonic with human red blood cells.
SYN: SEE: balanced solution

Jessner solution

SEE: Jessner solution

lactated Ringer solution

SEE: Ringer, Sydney

liquor solution

An aqueous solution of nonvolatile substances formerly used to prepare medicines.

Locke-Ringer solution

SEE: Locke solution

Lugol solution

SEE: Lugol solution

molar solution

SYMB: 1 M A solution containing a gram molecular weight or mole of the reagent dissolved in 1 L of solution.

normal solution

An obsolete term for a solution in which 1 L contains 1 g equivalent of the solute. This term is discouraged in the SI system.

normal saline solution

An isotonic saline solution.
SYN: SEE: physiological saline solution
SEE: isotonic solution

ophthalmic solution

A sterile preparation suitable for instillation in the eye.

oral rehydration solution

ABBR: ORS A solution used to prevent or correct dehydration due to diarrheal illnesses. The World Health Organization recommends that the solution contain 3.5 g sodium chloride; 2.9 g potassium chloride; 2.9 g trisodium citrate; and 1.5 g glucose dissolved in each liter of drinking water.

physiological saline solution

SEE: Normal saline solution.

polyethylene glycol electrolyte for gastrointestinal lavage solution

A solution for cleansing the bowel before colonoscopy and barium enema examinations. It is an isosmotic solution for oral administration, containing 236 g of polyethylene glycol 3350; 23.74 g of sodium sulfate; 6.74 g of sodium bicarbonate; 5.86 g of sodium chloride; and 2.97 g of potassium chloride added to water to make up a 4-L solution. For adults 4 L of the solution are given at the rate of 8 oz (240 mL) every 10 min until exhausted. The bowel will be cleansed within 3 to 4 hr.

potassium arsenite solution

An arsenical solution containing 0.95 to 1.5 g of arsenic trioxide for each 100 ml of solution.

repair solution

Any solution given intravenously to treat an electrolyte or metabolic disturbance.

replacement solution

A liquid given to a patient to increase concentrations of specific electrolytes or minerals. It is usually given intravenously, orally, enterally, or interosseously.

Ringer solution

SEE: Ringer, Sydney

saline solution

A solution of a salt, usually sodium chloride, and distilled water. A 0.9% solution of sodium chloride is considered isotonic to body fluids.

Salt solutions are used in health care for a wide variety of diseases and conditions: they rinse contact lenses, irrigate congested sinuses and wounds, and can be gargled to help sore throat symptoms. They can also be infused to maintain or restore hydration. Hypertonic saline solutions are occasionally used to treat hyponatremia. Hypotonic intravenous saline solutions add free water and may be used cautiously in some dehydrated patients, but these hypotonic solutions often lower patients' serum sodium levels, sometimes to dangerous levels.

saturated solution

A solution containing all the solute it can dissolve.
SEE: saturation point

sclerosing solution

SEE: Sclerosant.

scrub solution

A colloquial term for a skin cleanser for the removal of debris, dirt, microorganisms, oils, and scales from the skin of a patient before incision or instrumentation.

seminormal solution

ABBR: 05N or N/2 A solution containing one-half of a gram equivalent weight of reagent in 1 L of solution.

sodium iodide I 125 solution

A standardized solution of radioactive iodide, 125I.

standard solution

In comparison or analysis, a solution containing a definite amount of a substance.

strong ammonia solution

A solution containing approx. 28% ammonia in water.

supersaturated solution

A solution in which the saturation point is reached but when it is heated it is possible to dissolve more of the solute.
SEE: saturation point

test solution

A dissolved reagent used for a specific laboratory purpose.

tricitrates oral solution

A solution of sodium citrate, potassium citrate, and citric acid in a suitable aqueous medium. The sodium and potassium ion contents of the solution are approx. 1 mEq/ml.

Tyrode solution

SEE: Tyrode solution

Vleminckx solution

SEE: Vleminckx solution

volumetric solution

A standard solution containing a definite amount of a substance in 1 L of solution; used in volumetric analysis.